Volume 27, Issue 1
  • ISSN 0929-9971
  • E-ISSN: 1569-9994
Buy:$35.00 + Taxes



This paper deals with collaborative terminological activities in the biomedical field. Efficient communication based on uniform language use is a prerequisite for safe and cost-efficient patient care. Terminological consistency and standardization are therefore central issues in healthcare with high societal relevance. The objectives of this contribution are (1) to show how actors from different disciplines and institutions are involved in the standardization of medical terminology and electronic terminology systems; (2) to describe how translation-oriented terminological principles affect the translation of the Systematic Nomenclature of Medicine – Clinical Terms (SNOMED CT). The challenges of this approach will be discussed and some suggestions for its further development will be made.


Article metrics loading...

Loading full text...

Full text loading...


  1. Arp, Robert, Barry Smith, and Andrew D. Spear
    2015Building Ontologies with Basic Formal Ontology. Cambridge, Massachusetts/London, England: MIT Press. 10.7551/mitpress/9780262527811.001.0001
    https://doi.org/10.7551/mitpress/9780262527811.001.0001 [Google Scholar]
  2. Ashrafi, Noushin, Jean-Pierre Kuilboer, and Tristan Stull
    2018 “Semantic Interoperability in Healthcare: Challenges and Roadblocks.” InProceedings of STPIS’18, ed. byStewart Kowalski, Peter M. Bednar and Ilia Bider, 119–122. (ceur-ws.org/Vol-2107/). Accessed8 November 2019.
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Aussenac-Gilles, Nathalie, and Dagobert Soergel
    2005 “Text analysis for ontology and terminology engineering.” InApplied Ontology1: 35–46.
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Beddies, Thomas, Eva Brinkschulte, Martin Brumme, Volker Hess, Ilona Marz, and Thomas Müller
    (eds.) 2008Medizinische Terminologie. Skript für das Praktikum der Medizinischen Terminologie. Berlin: Institut für Geschichte der Medizin, Charité – Universitätsmedizin. Accessed10 November 2019.
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Benson, Tim, and Grahame Grieve
    2016Principles of Health Interoperability. SNOMED CT, HL7 and FHIR. 3. London: Springer. doi:  10.1007/978‑3‑319‑30370‑3
    https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-30370-3 [Google Scholar]
  6. Bhattacharyya, Subhra Bikash
    2016Introduction to SNOMED CT. Singapore: Springer Science and Business. 10.1007/978‑981‑287‑895‑3
    https://doi.org/10.1007/978-981-287-895-3 [Google Scholar]
  7. Bourigault, Didier, and Nathalie Aussenac-Gilles
    2003 “Construction d’ontologies à partir de texte.” InActes de la 10ème conférence sur le Traitement Automatique des Langues Naturelles, ed. byATALA, 27–47, Batz-sur-Mer, France: Association pour le Traitement Automatique des Langues.
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Bowker, Lynn, and Jennifer Pearson
    2002Working with Spezialized Language: A Practical Guide to Using Corpora. London: Routledge. 10.4324/9780203469255
    https://doi.org/10.4324/9780203469255 [Google Scholar]
  9. Buitelaar, Paul, Philipp Cimiano, and Bernardo Magnini
    2005Ontology-Learning from Text: Methods, Evaluation and Applications. Vol.123, Frontiers in Artifical Intelligence and Applications. Amsterdam: IOS Press.
  10. Cabré Castellví, M. Teresa
    2003 “Theories of Terminology. Their description, prescription and explanation”. Terminology9(2): 163–199. doi:  10.1075/term.9.2.03cab
    https://doi.org/10.1075/term.9.2.03cab [Google Scholar]
  11. Carvalho, Sara, Rute Costa, and Christophe Roche
    2018 “The Role of Conceptual Relationships in the Drafting of Natural Language Definitions: an example from the Biomedical Domain.” InGlobalex 2018 – Lexicography and WordNets, ed. byIlan Kernerman and Simon Krek, 10–16. Paris: European Language Resources Association (ELRA).
    [Google Scholar]
  12. Cimiano, Philipp, Johanna Völker, and Paul Buitelaar
    2010 “Ontology Construction.” InHandbook of Natural Language Processing, ed. byNitin Indurkhya and Fred J. Damerau, 577–604. Boca Raton/London/New York: CRC Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  13. Coiera, Enrico
    2015Guide to Health Informatics. Boca Raton, Florida: CRC Press. 10.1201/b13617
    https://doi.org/10.1201/b13617 [Google Scholar]
  14. Dobrina, Claudia
    2015 “Getting to the core of a terminological project.” InHandbook of Terminology, ed. byHendrik Kockaert and Frieda Steurs, 180–199. Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins. 10.1075/hot.1.get1
    https://doi.org/10.1075/hot.1.get1 [Google Scholar]
  15. Durán Muñoz, Isabel
    2016 “Producing frame–based definitions.” Terminology22(2): 223–249. doi:  10.1075/term.22.2.04mun
    https://doi.org/10.1075/term.22.2.04mun [Google Scholar]
  16. El-Sappagh, Shaker, Francesco Franda, Ali Farman, and Kyung–Sup Kwak
    2018 “SNOMED CT standard ontology based on the ontology for general medical science.” Medical Informatics and Decision Making (BMC)1–19. doi:  10.1186/s12911‑018‑0651‑5
    https://doi.org/10.1186/s12911-018-0651-5 [Google Scholar]
  17. Faber, Pamela, and Clara Inés López Rodriguez
    2012 “Terminology and Specialized Language.” InA Cognitive Linguistics View of Terminology and Specialized Language, ed. byPamela Faber, 9–31. Berlin/Boston: De Gruyter Mouton. doi:  10.1515/9783110277203
    https://doi.org/10.1515/9783110277203 [Google Scholar]
  18. Felber, Helmut
    1984Terminology Manual. Paris: Unesco, Infoterm.
    [Google Scholar]
  19. Freitas, Frederico, Stefan Schulz, and Eduardo C. Moraes
    2009 “Survey of current terminologies and ontologies in biology and medicine.” RECIIS – Electronical Journal of Communication Information Innovationn in Health. 3(1): 7–18. doi:  10.3395/reciis.v3i1.239en
    https://doi.org/10.3395/reciis.v3i1.239en [Google Scholar]
  20. Gruber, Thomas R.
    1995 “Towards principles for the design of ontologies used for knowledge sharing.” International Journal of Human – Computer Studies43(5–6): 907–928. doi:  10.1006/ijhc.1995.1081
    https://doi.org/10.1006/ijhc.1995.1081 [Google Scholar]
  21. Guarino, Nicola, Daniel Oberle, and Steffen Staab
    2009 “What is an ontology?” InHandbook on Ontologies, ed. bySteffen Staab and Daniel Oberle, 1–17. Heidelberg/Berlin: Springer. doi:  10.1007/978‑3‑540‑92673‑3_0
    https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-540-92673-3_0 [Google Scholar]
  22. IHTSDO
    IHTSDO 2012aGuidelines for Translation of SNOMED CT. (https://www.snomed.org/SNOMED/media/SNOMED/documents/IHTSDO_Translation_Guidelines_v2_02_20121211–(1).pdf). Accessed12 November 2019.
    [Google Scholar]
  23. IHTSDO
    IHTSDO 2012bGuidelines for Management of Translation of SNOMED CT. (https://www.snomed.org/SNOMED/media/SNOMED/documents/IHTSDO_Guidelines_Management_Translation_SCT_v2_02_20121211–(1).pdf). Accessed12 November 2019.
    [Google Scholar]
  24. INFOTERM – International Information Centre for Terminology
    INFOTERM – International Information Centre for Terminology. Guidelines for Terminology Policies. CI.2005/WS/4. Paris: UNESCO 2005 (https://unesdoc.unesco.org/ark:/48223/pf0000140765). Accessed10 November 2019.
    [Google Scholar]
  25. ISO 1087–1
    ISO 1087–1 2000Terminology work – Vocabulary – Part 1: Theory and Application. Geneva: ISO.
    [Google Scholar]
  26. ISO 704
    ISO 704 2009Terminology work – Principles and Methods. Geneva: ISO.
    [Google Scholar]
  27. Ivanovic, Mirjana, and Zoran Budimac
    2014 “An overview of ontologies and data resources in medical domains.” Expert Systems with Applications41(11): 5158–5166. doi:  10.1016/j.eswa.2014.02.045
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.eswa.2014.02.045 [Google Scholar]
  28. Karenberger, Axel
    2015Fachsprache Medizin im Schnellkurs. Stuttgart: Schattauer.
    [Google Scholar]
  29. Karsch, Barbara
    2015 “Terminology work and crowd sourcing. Coming to terms with the crowd.” InHandbook of Terminology, ed. byHendrik Kockaert and Frieda Steurs, 291–303. Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins. 10.1075/hot.1.ter4
    https://doi.org/10.1075/hot.1.ter4 [Google Scholar]
  30. Kerremans, Koen, Rita Temmerman, and José Tummers
    2003 “Representing Multilingual and Culture–Specific Knowledge in a VAT Regulatory Ontology: Support from the Termontography Approach.” InLecture Notes in Computer Science 2889, ed. byRobert Meersman and Zahir Tari, 662–674. Tübingen: Springer. doi:  10.1007/978‑3‑540‑39962‑9_68
    https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-540-39962-9_68 [Google Scholar]
  31. Ma Yue, and Felix Distel
    2013 “Learning Formal Definitions for Snomed CT from Text.” InArtificial Intelligence in Medicine. AIME 2013, ed. byNiels Peek, Roque L. Marín Morales, and Mor Peleg, 73–77. Lecture Notes in Computer Science, vol7885. Heidelberg, Berlin: Springer. doi:  10.1007/978‑3‑642‑38326‑7_11
    https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-38326-7_11 [Google Scholar]
  32. Madsen Nistrup, Bodil, and Hanne Erdman Thomsen
    2009 “Terminological Concept Modeling and Conceptual Data Modeling.” International Journal of Metadata, Semantics and Ontologies (IJMSO)4 (4): 239–249. doi:  10.1504/IJMSO.2009.029228
    https://doi.org/10.1504/IJMSO.2009.029228 [Google Scholar]
  33. 2015 “Concept Modeling vs. Data Modeling in Practice.” InHandbook of Terminology, ed. byHendrik Kockaert and Frieda Steurs, 250–275. Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins. 10.1075/hot.1.13con1
    https://doi.org/10.1075/hot.1.13con1 [Google Scholar]
  34. Madsen Nistrup, Bodil, Hanne Erdman Thomsen, and Carl Vikner
    2002 “Computer Assisted Ontology Structuring.” InTerminology and Knowledge Engineering Conference 2002 – Proceedings, ed. byAlan Melby, 77–82. INRIA.
    [Google Scholar]
  35. Montalt, Vincent, and Maria Gonzalez-Davies
    2007Medical Translation Step by Step: Learning by Drafting. Manchester: St. Jerome Publishing.
    [Google Scholar]
  36. Nuopponen, Anita
    2018 “Dimensions of Terminology Work.” Terminologija25: 6–22.
    [Google Scholar]
  37. Picht, Heribert, and Jennifer Draskau
    1985Terminology: An Introduction. 2Vol.Surrey: University of Surrey, Department of Linguistics and International Studies.
    [Google Scholar]
  38. Roche, Christophe
    2015 “Ontological Definition.” InHandbook of Terminology, ed. byHendrik Kockaert and Frieda Steurs, 128–152. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. 10.1075/hot.1.08ont1
    https://doi.org/10.1075/hot.1.08ont1 [Google Scholar]
  39. Roche, Christophe, Marie Calberg-Challot, Luc Damas, and Philippe Rouard
    2009 “Ontoterminology: A new paradigm for terminology.” InProceedings of the International Conference on Knowledge Engineering and Ontology Development (KEOD), Funchal – Madeira Portugal, ed. byJan L. G. Dietz, 321–326. INSTICC Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  40. Roche, Christophe, Rute Costa, Sara Carvalho, and Bruno Almeida
    2019 “Knowledge–based terminological e–dictionaries. The EndoTerm and al–Andalus Pottery projects.” Terminology25(2): 259–290. doi:  10.1075/term.00038.roc
    https://doi.org/10.1075/term.00038.roc [Google Scholar]
  41. Sadegh-Zadeh, Kazem
    2015Handbook of Analytic Philosophy of Medicine. Dordrecht: Springer. doi:  10.1007/978‑94‑017‑9579‑1
    https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-017-9579-1 [Google Scholar]
  42. Sakki, Hanna E. A., Naomi J. Dale, Jenefer Sargent, Teresa Perez-Roche, and Richard Bowman
    2018 “Is there consensus in defining childhood cerebral visual impairment? A systematic review of terminology and definitions.” British Journal of Ophthalmology102 (4): 424–432. doi:  10.1136/bjophthalmol‑2017‑310694
    https://doi.org/10.1136/bjophthalmol-2017-310694 [Google Scholar]
  43. Santos, Claudia, and Rute Costa
    2015 “Domain Specifity.” InHandbook of Terminology, Vol.2, ed. byHendrik Kockaert and Frieda Steurs, 153–179. Amsterdam: Benjamins. doi:  10.1075/hot.1.09dom1
    https://doi.org/10.1075/hot.1.09dom1 [Google Scholar]
  44. Schulz, Stefan
    2011 “Wozu benötigen wir standardisierte Terminologien wie SNOMED CT?” Swiss Medical Informatics27–32.
    [Google Scholar]
  45. Schulz, Stefan, Johannes Bernhardt-Melischniga, Markus Kreuzthalera, Philipp Daumkeb, and Martin Boeker
    2013 “Machine vs. Human Translation of SNOMED CT terms.” Studies in Health Technology and Informatics192: 581–584.
    [Google Scholar]
  46. Seppälä, Selja
    2007 “La définition en terminologie: typologies et critères définitoires.” InTerminologie and Ontologies; Théories et Applications: Actes de la première conférence TOTh, Annecy, France:23–43. (www.porphyre.org/toth). Accessed15 November 2019.
    [Google Scholar]
  47. Smith, Barry
    2003 “Ontology.” InBlackwell Guide to the Philosophy of Computing and Information, ed. byLuciano Floridi, 155–166. Oxford: Blackwell.
    [Google Scholar]
  48. Smith, Barry, Werner Ceusters, and Rita Temmerman
    2005 “Wüsteria.” Studies in Health Technology and Informatics (116): 647–652. Amsterdam: IOS Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  49. Spackman, Kent A., and Guillermo Reynoso
    2004 “Examining SNOMED from the perspective of formal ontological principles: Some preliminary analysis and observations.” InProceedings of the KR 2004 Workshop on Formal Biomedical Knowledge Representation, ed. byUdo Hahn, 72–80. BC Canada: Whistler.
    [Google Scholar]
  50. Stammberger, Heinz, Werner Hosemann, and Wolfgang Draf
    1997 “Anatomische Terminologie und Nomenklatur für die Nasennebenhöhlenchirurgie.” Laryngo–Rhino–Otologie76 (7): 435–449. Stuttgart: Thieme. doi:  10.1055/s‑2007‑997458
    https://doi.org/10.1055/s-2007-997458 [Google Scholar]
  51. Sunyaev, Ali, Sebastian Dünnebeil, Christian Mauro, Jan-Marco Leimeister, and Helmut Krcmar
    2010IT-Standards im Gesundheitswesen: Überblick und Entwicklungsperspektiven mit der Einführung Service-Orientierter Architektur. Vol. 1, in INFORMATIK 2010. Service Science – Neue Perspektiven für die Informatik, ed. byKlaus-Peter Fähnrich and Bogdan Franczyk, 223–228. Bonn: Gesellschaft für Informatik e.V. (https://dl.gi.de/bitstream/handle/20.500.12116/19205/223.pdf?sequence=1&isAllowed=y). Accessed20 November 2019.
    [Google Scholar]
  52. Temmerman, Rita
    2000Towards New Ways of Terminology Description: The Sociocognitive Approach. Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins. 10.1075/tlrp.3
    https://doi.org/10.1075/tlrp.3 [Google Scholar]
  53. Thun, Sylvia
    2015 “Digitalisierte Medizin. Die Zukunft der Medizin mit IT–Standards und einer weltweit gültigen Medizinfachsprach.” Informatik Spektrum38: 22–27. doi:  10.1007/s00287‑014‑0859‑4
    https://doi.org/10.1007/s00287-014-0859-4 [Google Scholar]
  54. Wenger, Etienne, and Beverly Wenger-Trayner
    2015 “Communities of Practice: A Brief Introduction.” (https://wenger-trayner.com/wp-content/uploads/2013/10/06-Brief-introduction-to-communities-of-practice.pdf). Accessed4 July 2020.
  55. Wermuth, Maria-Cornelia, and Heidi Verplaetse
    2018 “Medical terminology in the Western world.” InHandbook of Terminology. Terminology in the Arab world, ed. byAbied Alsulaiman and Ahmed Allaithy, 83–108. Amsterdam/New York: John Benjamins.
    [Google Scholar]
  56. Wyatt, Jeremy C., and Joseph L. Y. Liu
    2002 “Basic concepts in medical informatics.” Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health56(11): 808–812. doi:  10.1136/jech.56.11.808
    https://doi.org/10.1136/jech.56.11.808 [Google Scholar]
  57. IHTSDO
    IHTSDO 2018a SNOMED CT Editorial Guide. snomed.org/eg. Accessed12 November 2019.
  58. IHTSDO
    IHTSDO 2018b SNOMED CT Starter Guide. snomed.org/sg. Accessed12 November 2019.

Data & Media loading...

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was successful
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error