1887
image of Engaging citizen translators in disasters
  • ISSN 1932-2798
  • E-ISSN 1876-2700
USD
Buy:$35.00 + Taxes

Abstract

Abstract

Crisis situations, including disasters, require urgent decisions, often without sufficient resources, including decisions about translating and interpreting. We argue that using citizen translators (i.e., translators without professional translator training) in such contexts can be ethically justified when their preparation incorporates virtue ethics. Translation potentially improves access to crucial safety information, and delivering such information is critical. We acknowledge several ethical challenges with citizen translation based on our experience in humanitarian contexts, relevant literature, and discussions with stakeholders engaged with our research consortium. Recourse to citizen translators has limitations, but we advance mitigation measures through training to address the ethical challenges of providing translation services to linguistically diverse groups in crisis. We propose virtue ethics as a framework for citizen translators to develop ethical decision-making skills and virtues. We suggest virtue ethics training to prepare citizen translators for ethical challenges in the field.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.1075/tis.20003.oma
2020-02-11
2020-02-28
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

References

  1. Aguilar-Solano, María
    2015 “Non-professional volunteer interpreting as an institutionalized practice in healthcare: A study on interpreters’ personal narratives.” Translation & Interpreting17 (3): 132–148. doi: 10.12807/ti.107203.2015.a10
    https://doi.org/10.12807/ti.107203.2015.a10 [Google Scholar]
  2. Allen, Lilly and Sam Duckworth
    2017 “Speak to Grenfell survivors in language they can understand.” The Guardian (July16 2017) www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2017/jul/15/speak-to-grenfell-survivors-in-a-language-they-understand. Last accessed25 October 2019.
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Baker, Mona
    2010 “Interpreters and translators in the war zone: Narrated and narrators.” The Translator16 (2): 197–222. doi:  10.1080/13556509.2010.10799469
    https://doi.org/10.1080/13556509.2010.10799469 [Google Scholar]
  4. Baker, Mona and Carol Maier
    2011 “Ethics in interpreter & translator training: Critical perspectives.” The Interpreter and Translator Trainer5 (1): 1–14. doi:  10.1080/13556509.2011.10798809
    https://doi.org/10.1080/13556509.2011.10798809 [Google Scholar]
  5. Bancroft, Marjory A.
    2017 “The voice of compassion: Exploring trauma-informed interpreting.” InIdeology, Ethics and Policy Development in Public Service Interpreting and Translation, ed. byCarmen Valero-Garcés and Rebecca Tipton, 195–219. Bristol: Multilingual Matters. 10.21832/9781783097531‑014
    https://doi.org/10.21832/9781783097531-014 [Google Scholar]
  6. BBC
    BBC 2018 “Aquarius in Valencia: Spain welcomes migrants from disputed ship.” BBC News (June 17, 2018). www.bbc.com/news/world-44510002. Last accessed25 October 2019.
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Bennett, William J.
    (ed) 1993The Book of Virtues: A Treasury of Great Moral Stories. New York: Simon & Schuster.
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Bilal, Muhammad Sami, Mowadat Huassain Rana, Sajid Rahim, and Sohail Ali
    2007 “Psychological trauma in a relief worker–A case report from earthquake-struck areas of North Pakistan.” Prehospital & Disaster Medicine22 (5): 458–461. doi:  10.1017/S1049023X00005215
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S1049023X00005215 [Google Scholar]
  9. Bischoff, Alexander, Louis Loutan, and Sofía García-Beyaert
    2009En otras palabras. Guía para la consulta médica intercultural [In other words. A guide to intercultural doctor-patient consultations]. Geneva: Universal Doctor Project.
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Brander de la Iglesia, María
    2017 “‘A sea of troubles’: Ethical dilemmas from war zones to the classroom.” InIdeology, Ethics and Policy Development in Public Service Interpreting and Translation, ed. byCarmen Valero-Garcés and Rebecca Tipton, 84–101. Bristol: Multilingual Matters. 10.21832/9781783097531‑009
    https://doi.org/10.21832/9781783097531-009 [Google Scholar]
  11. Camayd-Freixas, Erik
    2008 “Interpreting after the largest ICE raid in US history: A personal account.” The Gotham Translator Newsletter. Reprinted in Translation Journal. translationjournal.net/journal/47ethics.htm. Last accessed25 October 2019.
    [Google Scholar]
  12. 2013 “Court interpreter ethics and the role of professional organizations.” InInterpreting in a Changing Landscape. Selected Papers from Critical Link 6, ed. byChristina Schäffner, Krzysztof Kredens, and Yvonne Fowler, 15–30. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. 10.1075/btl.109.04cam
    https://doi.org/10.1075/btl.109.04cam [Google Scholar]
  13. Cohen, Howard
    2017 “Speak a second language? Group needs volunteer translators to help after the storm.” Miami Herald (September21 2017) www.miamiherald.com/news/weather/hurricane/article174578076.html. Last accessed25 October 2019.
    [Google Scholar]
  14. Drugan, Joanna and Chris Megone
    2011 “Bringing ethics into translator training: An integrated, inter-disciplinary approach.” The Interpreter and Translator Trainer5 (1): 183–211. doi:  10.1080/13556509.2011.10798817
    https://doi.org/10.1080/13556509.2011.10798817 [Google Scholar]
  15. Drugan, Joanna and Rebecca Tipton
    2017 “Translation, ethics and social responsibility.” The Translator23 (2): 119–125. doi:  10.1080/13556509.2017.1327008
    https://doi.org/10.1080/13556509.2017.1327008 [Google Scholar]
  16. Drugan, Joanna
    2017 “Ethics and social responsibility in practice: Interpreters and translators engaging with and beyond the professions.” The Translator23 (2): 126–142. doi:  10.1080/13556509.2017.1281204
    https://doi.org/10.1080/13556509.2017.1281204 [Google Scholar]
  17. Edwards, Rosalind, Bogusia Temple, and Claire Alexander
    2005 “Users’ experiences of interpreters: The critical role of trust.” Interpreting7 (1): 77–95. doi:  10.1075/intp.7.1.05edw
    https://doi.org/10.1075/intp.7.1.05edw [Google Scholar]
  18. Emmerich, Nathan
    (ed) 2018Virtue Ethics in the Conduct and Governance of Social Science Research. Bingley, UK: Emerald. 10.1108/S2398‑6018201803
    https://doi.org/10.1108/S2398-6018201803 [Google Scholar]
  19. Federici, Federico M. and Patrick Cadwell
    2018 “Training citizen translators: Red Cross translation needs and the delivery of a bespoke training on the fundamentals of translation.” Translation Spaces7 (1): 20–43. doi:  10.1075/ts.00002.fed
    https://doi.org/10.1075/ts.00002.fed [Google Scholar]
  20. Gallai, Fabrizio
    2019a “Interpreting ethics in fragile environments.” Journal of War and Culture Studies12 (3): 220–235. doi:  10.1080/17526272.2019.1644414
    https://doi.org/10.1080/17526272.2019.1644414 [Google Scholar]
  21. 2019b “Interpreters at war: Testing boundaries of neutrality.” InThe Palgrave Handbook of Languages and Conflict, ed. byMichael Kelly, Hillary Footitt, and Myriam Salama-Carr, 205–230. Cham: Palgrave Macmillan. 10.1007/978‑3‑030‑04825‑9_10
    https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-04825-9_10 [Google Scholar]
  22. Gentile, Paola
    2017 “Political ideology and the de-professionalisation of public service interpreting: The Netherlands and the United Kingdom as case studies.” InIdeology, Ethics and Policy Development in Public Service Interpreting and Translation, ed. byCarmen Valero-Garcés and Rebecca Tipton, 63–84. Bristol: Multilingual Matters. 10.21832/9781783097531‑008
    https://doi.org/10.21832/9781783097531-008 [Google Scholar]
  23. Gotowiec, Sarah and Elizabeth Cantor-Graae
    2017 “The burden of choice: A qualitative study of healthcare professionals’ reactions to ethical challenges in humanitarian crises.” International Journal of Humanitarian Action2: article 2. doi:  10.1186/s41018‑017‑0019‑y
    https://doi.org/10.1186/s41018-017-0019-y [Google Scholar]
  24. Hale, Sandra
    2015 “Approaching the bench: Teaching magistrates and judges how to work effectively with interpreters.” MonTI7: 181–205. doi:  10.6035/MonTI.2015.7.6
    https://doi.org/10.6035/MonTI.2015.7.6 [Google Scholar]
  25. House, Juliane
    2001 “Translation quality assessment: Linguistic description versus social evaluation.” Meta46 (2): 243–257. doi:  10.7202/003141ar
    https://doi.org/10.7202/003141ar [Google Scholar]
  26. Inghilleri, Moira
    2008 “The ethical task of the translator in the geo-political arena. From Iraq to Guantánamo Bay.” Translation Studies1 (2): 212–223. doi:  10.1080/14781700802113556
    https://doi.org/10.1080/14781700802113556 [Google Scholar]
  27. 2010 “‘You don’t make war without knowing why.’ The decision to interpret in Iraq.” The Translator16 (2): 175–196. doi:  10.1080/13556509.2010.10799468
    https://doi.org/10.1080/13556509.2010.10799468 [Google Scholar]
  28. MacIntyre, Alasdair
    2007After Virtue: A Study in Moral Theory, 3rd ed.Notre Dame, Indiana: University of Notre Dame.
    [Google Scholar]
  29. Macfarlane, Bruce
    2009Researching with Integrity: The Ethics of Academic Enquiry. New York: Routledge.
    [Google Scholar]
  30. Marlowe, Jay M.
    2015 “Belonging and disaster recovery: Refugee-background communities and the Canterbury earthquakes.” British Journal of Social Work45 (1): i188–i204. doi:  10.1093/bjsw/bcv090
    https://doi.org/10.1093/bjsw/bcv090 [Google Scholar]
  31. McDonough Dolmaya, Julie
    2011 “Moral ambiguity: Some shortcomings of professional codes of ethics for translators.” Journal of Specialised Translation15: 28–49.
    [Google Scholar]
  32. Miller, Kenneth E.,
    2005 “The role of interpreters in psychotherapy with refugees: An exploratory study.” American Journal of Orthopsychiatry75 (1): 27–39. doi:  10.1037/0002‑9432.75.1.27
    https://doi.org/10.1037/0002-9432.75.1.27 [Google Scholar]
  33. Mulayim, Sedat and Miranda Lai
    2017Ethics for Police Translators and Interpreters. Boca Raton: CRC Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  34. Munro, Robert
    2013 “Crowdsourcing and the crisis-affected community: Lessons learned and looking forward from mission 4636.” Information Retrieval16 (2): 210–266. doi:  10.1007/s10791‑012‑9203‑2
    https://doi.org/10.1007/s10791-012-9203-2 [Google Scholar]
  35. O’Brien, Sharon and Patrick Cadwell
    2017 “Translation facilitates comprehension of health-related crisis information: Kenya as an example.” Journal of Specialised Translation28: 23–51.
    [Google Scholar]
  36. O’Brien, Sharon, Federico M. Federici, Patrick Cadwell, Jay Marlowe, and Brian Gerber
    2018 “Language translation during disaster: A comparative analysis of five national approaches.” International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction31: 627–636. doi:  10.1016/j.ijdrr.2018.07.006
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijdrr.2018.07.006 [Google Scholar]
  37. O’Mathúna, Dónal
    2008 “Teaching ethics using popular songs: Feeling and thinking.” Monash Bioethics Review27 (1–2): 42–55. doi:  10.1007/BF03351295
    https://doi.org/10.1007/BF03351295 [Google Scholar]
  38. 2016 “Ideal and nonideal moral theory for disaster bioethics.” Human Affairs26 (1): 8–17. doi:  10.1515/humaff‑2016‑0002
    https://doi.org/10.1515/humaff-2016-0002 [Google Scholar]
  39. O’Mathúna, Dónal P.
    2018 “Humanitarian ethics: From dignity and solidarity to response and research.” InCatholic Bioethics and Social Justice: The Praxis of US Health Care in a Globalized World, ed. byM. Therese Lysaught and Michael McCarthy, 343–358. Collegeville, MN: Liturgical Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  40. Pellegrino, Edmund D.
    1991 “Trust and distrust in professional ethics.” InEthics, Trust and the Professions: Philosophical and Cultural Aspects, ed. byEdmund D. Pellegrino, Robert M. Veatch, and John P. Langan, 69–89. Washington, DC: Georgetown University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  41. Peterson, Christopher and Martin E. P. Seligman
    2004Character Strengths and Virtues: A Handbook and Classification. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  42. Preston, Julia
    2008 “An interpreter speaking up for migrants.” The New York Times (July11 2008) https://www.nytimes.com/2008/07/11/us/11immig.html. Last accessed25 October 2019.
    [Google Scholar]
  43. Red Vértice
    Red Vértice 2018 “The interpreting profession urges government to rely on professional interpreters when seeking volunteers in emergency situations.” www.redvertice.org/2018/06/nota-de-prensa-sobre-la-red-vertice.html. Last accessed25 October 2019.
  44. Schouten, Barbara C.
    2017 “Toward a theoretical framework of informal interpreting in health care: Explaining the effects of role conflict on control, power and trust.” InProviding Health Care in the Context of Language Barriers: International Perspectives, ed. byElizabeth A. Jacobs and Lisa C. Diamond, 71–92. Bristol: Multilingual Matters. 10.21832/9781783097777‑007
    https://doi.org/10.21832/9781783097777-007 [Google Scholar]
  45. Shionoya, Yuichi
    2001 “Trust as a virtue.” InCompetition, Trust, and Cooperation: A Comparative Study, ed. byYuichi Shionoya and Kiichiro Yagi, 3–19. Berlin: Springer. 10.1007/978‑3‑642‑56836‑7_1
    https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-56836-7_1 [Google Scholar]
  46. Slim, Hugo
    2015Humanitarian Ethics: A Guide to the Morality of Aid in War and Disaster. London: Hurst & Company.
    [Google Scholar]
  47. Splevins, Katie A.,
    2010 “Vicarious posttraumatic growth among interpreters.” Qualitative Health Research20 (12): 1705–1716. doi:  10.1177/1049732310377457
    https://doi.org/10.1177/1049732310377457 [Google Scholar]
  48. Taibi, Mustapha, and Uldis Ozolins
    2016Community Translation. London: Bloomsbury Academic.
    [Google Scholar]
  49. Tipton, Rebecca
    2010 “On trust: Relationships of trust in interpreter-mediated social work encounters.” InText and Context: Essays on Translation and Interpreting in Honour of Ian Mason, ed. byMona Baker, Maeve Olohan, and María Calzada Pérez, 188–208. Manchester: St Jerome.
    [Google Scholar]
  50. Urbina, Sandra
    2018 “Cientos de intérpretes voluntarios listos para dar voz a las vidas del ‘Aquarius’” [Hundreds of volunteer interpreters ready to give a voice to the lives in the ‘Aquarius’]. Levante. El Mercantil Valenciano (June 17, 2018). www.levante-emv.com/comunitat-valenciana/2018/06/17/cientos-interpretes-voluntarios-listos-dar/1732949.html. Last accessed25 October 2019.
    [Google Scholar]
  51. Wij Zijn Sprakeloos
    Wij Zijn Sprakeloos 2012 “Wij zijn sprakeloos” [We are speechless]. www.wij​zijn​sprakeloos.nl. Last accessed25 October 2019.
  52. Wylie, Sarah
    2012Best Practice Guidelines: Engaging with Culturally and Linguistically Diverse (CALD) Communities in Times of Disaster. Christchurch, New Zealand. https://bit.ly/302bl7d. Last accessed25 October 2019.
    [Google Scholar]
  53. Zendedel, Rena,
    2018 “Informal interpreting in general practice: Are interpreters’ roles related to perceived control, trust, and satisfaction?” Patient Education and Counseling101 (6): 1058–1065. doi:  10.1016/j.pec.2018.01.012
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pec.2018.01.012 [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journals/10.1075/tis.20003.oma
Loading
This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was successful
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error