1887
Volume 17, Issue 3
  • ISSN 1932-2798
  • E-ISSN: 1876-2700
USD
Buy:$35.00 + Taxes

Abstract

Abstract

This article critically analyzes current sign language policy trends and related sign language ideologies regarding interpreter provision and the institutionalization of sign language interpreting in Canada. Particular attention is paid to issues of representation in the provision of interpreters for government emergency briefings during the COVID-19 pandemic. Based on the provision of interpreting services for COVID-19 briefings, sign language interpreting as a profession in Canada is revealed as problematic. This is particularly true regarding the institutionalization of the profession and how existing social hierarchies and ideologies are consolidated with respect to diverse deaf people and interpreters.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.1075/tis.21005.sno
2023-04-25
2024-05-25
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

References

  1. Accessible Canadian Emergency Announcements in SL
    Accessible Canadian Emergency Announcements in SL. n.d.InFacebook [Facebook page]. Retrieved fromwww.facebook.com/aceasl2020
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Adam, Robert
    . [@translationtalk] 2021, May6. Today I will talk about training opportunities & qualifications for deaf practitioners [Tweet]. Twitter. https://twitter.com/translationtalk/status/1390269364616695809?s=20
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Association of Visual Language Interpreters of Canada
    Association of Visual Language Interpreters of Canada. n.d.a. Canadian Evaluation System. Retrieved fromwww.avlic.ca/ces
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Association of Visual Language Interpreters of Canada
    Association of Visual Language Interpreters of Canada. n.d.b. Code of Ethics and Guidelines for Professional Conduct. Retrieved fromwww.avlic.ca/ethics-and-guidlines/english#overlay-context=user/285
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Association of Visual Language Interpreters of Canada
    Association of Visual Language Interpreters of Canada. n.d.c. Complaints Process. Retrieved fromwww.avlic.ca/complaints-process
    [Google Scholar]
  6. Association of Visual Language Interpreters of Canada
    Association of Visual Language Interpreters of Canada 2011Policy & Procedure Manual. Retrieved fromwww.avlic.ca/sites/default/files/docs/2011-12%20P&P%20Manual%20Section%201%20-%20History.pdf
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Association of Visual Language Interpreters of Canada
    Association of Visual Language Interpreters of Canada 2015, June25. AVLIC Official Position – Deaf Interpreter. Retrieved fromwww.avlic.ca/sites/default/files/docs/2015-06_AVLIC_Official_Postion-Deaf_Interpreter.pdf
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Association of Visual Language Interpreters of Canada
    Association of Visual Language Interpreters of Canada 2020a, June5. Black Lives Matter. Retrieved fromwww.avlic.ca/node/1063
  9. Association of Visual Language Interpreters of Canada
    Association of Visual Language Interpreters of Canada 2020b, March18. Board message: Open letter to governments and media outlets. Retrieved fromwww.avlic.ca/node/1043
  10. Beatty, Jeffrey
    2019, May14. Standing Committee on Canadian Heritage (CHPC): Marsha Ireland and Max Ireland as individuals: Oneida Nation and Turtle Clan. www.facebook.com/jeffrey.beatty.94 [Facebook update]. Retrieved fromwww.facebook.com/jeffrey.beatty.94/posts/10156833771850862
  11. Berman, David
    2020Technology Accessibility for Canadians with Communication Disabilities: Report. Ottawa, ON: Canadian Association of the Deaf-Association des Sourds du Canada.
    [Google Scholar]
  12. Canada
    Canada 2019a Accessible Canada Act, S.C. 2019, c. 10.
    [Google Scholar]
  13. Canada
    Canada 2019b An act respecting Indigenous languages, SC 2019 c. 23.
    [Google Scholar]
  14. Canada
    Canada 2020 Broadcasting and telecommunications legislative review. Retrieved fromwww.ic.gc.ca/eic/site/110.nsf/eng/home
  15. Canadian Association of Sign Language Interpreters
    Canadian Association of Sign Language Interpreters. n.d.a. Deaf interpreter: How to become an active CASLI member. Retrieved fromwww.casli.ca/How-to-Join-CASLI-as-a-Deaf-Interpreter-Member
    [Google Scholar]
  16. Canadian Association of Sign Language Interpreters
    Canadian Association of Sign Language Interpreters. n.d.b. Directory. Retrieved fromwww.casli.ca/directory?&tab=1
    [Google Scholar]
  17. Canadian Association of the Deaf-Association des Sourds du Canada
    Canadian Association of the Deaf-Association des Sourds du Canada 2015Interpreting. Retrieved fromcad.ca/issues-positions/interpreting/
    [Google Scholar]
  18. CBC News
    CBC News 2020, April1. “You’re a rock star”: Premier heaps praise upon “champion” ASL interpreter. www.cbc.ca/news/canada/toronto/ford-ontario-sign-language-guy-1.5517914
  19. Canadian Radio-Television and Telecommunications Commission
    Canadian Radio-Television and Telecommunications Commission 2014, April22. Telecom Regulatory Policy CRTC 2014–187. Retrieved fromhttps://crtc.gc.ca/eng/archive/2014/2014-187.htm
  20. Canadian Radio-Television and Telecommunications Commission
    Canadian Radio-Television and Telecommunications Commission 2021, July7. Telecom and Broadcasting Regulatory Policy CRTC 2021–215. Retrieved fromhttps://crtc.gc.ca/eng/archive/2021/2021-215.htm
  21. Carbin, Clifton
    1996Deaf Heritage in Canada. Toronto: McGraw-Hill.
    [Google Scholar]
  22. Colonomos, Betty,
    2018, May24. Report of CES Rating Review Team. Association of Visual Language Interpreters of Canada.
    [Google Scholar]
  23. Constantin, Wissam, Lisa Anderson, Megan McHugh, and Elliott Richman
    2020Navigating new directions to accessible communications and regulations under Accessible Canada Act: Deaf, deaf-blind, and hard of hearing perspective. Intervention for CRTC 2020–124. Ottawa, ON: Canadian Association of the Deaf-Association des Sourds du Canada.
    [Google Scholar]
  24. De Meulder, Maartje and Hilde Haualand
    2021 Sign language interpreting services: A quick fix for inclusion?Translation and Interpreting Studies16(1): 19–40. 10.1075/tis.18008.dem
    https://doi.org/10.1075/tis.18008.dem [Google Scholar]
  25. De Meulder, Maartje and Isabelle Heyerick
    2013 “(Deaf) interpreters on television: Challenging power and responsibility.” InSign Language Research, Uses, and Practices: Crossing Views on Theoretical and Applied Sign Language Linguistics, ed. byLaurence Meurant , 111–136. Berlin: De Gruyter Mouton. 10.1515/9781614511472.111
    https://doi.org/10.1515/9781614511472.111 [Google Scholar]
  26. Douglas College
  27. Dyer, Kelsey
    2020, March25. Meet Randy, the ASL interpreter at Alberta’s COVID-19 updates. CTV News Edmonton. https://edmonton.ctvnews.ca/meet-randy-the-asl-interpreter-at-alberta-s-covid-19-updates-1.4868042
  28. Eldridge v. British Columbia (Attorney General)
    Eldridge v. British Columbia (Attorney General) [1997] 3 S.C.R. 624
    [Google Scholar]
  29. Flores, Nelson and Jonathan Rosa
    2015 “Undoing appropriateness: Raciolinguistic ideologies and language diversity in education.” Harvard Educational Review85(2): 149–171. 10.17763/0017‑8055.85.2.149
    https://doi.org/10.17763/0017-8055.85.2.149 [Google Scholar]
  30. FordNation
    FordNation 2020, March24. Minister of Finance and Premier of Ontario release an economic and fiscal update. www.facebook.com/FordNationDougFord/ [Facebook update]. Retrieved fromwww.facebook.com/watch/live/?v=2536007530049193&ref=watch_permalink
  31. García-Fernández, Carla
    2020 “Intersectionality and autoethnography: DeafBlind, DeafDisabled, Deaf and Hard of Hearing-Latinx children are the future.” JCSCORE6(1). 10.15763/issn.2642‑2387.2020.6.1.40‑67
    https://doi.org/10.15763/issn.2642-2387.2020.6.1.40-67 [Google Scholar]
  32. George Brown College
    George Brown College 2021 Honours Bachelor of Interpretation (American Sign Language-English) program (C302). Retrieved fromwww.georgebrown.ca/programs/honours-bachelor-of-interpretation-american-sign-language-english-program-c302
  33. Haque, Eve and Donna Patrick
    2015 “Indigenous languages and the racial hierarchisation of language policy in Canada.” Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development36(1): 27–41. 10.1080/01434632.2014.892499
    https://doi.org/10.1080/01434632.2014.892499 [Google Scholar]
  34. Husband, Dale
    2020, May3. Alan Wendt: The interpreter. E-tangata. https://e-tangata.co.nz/korero/alan-wendt-the-interpreter/
    [Google Scholar]
  35. Kim, Hyunah, Jennifer Lynn Burton, Tasneem Ahmed, and Jeff Bale
    2019 “Linguistic hierarchisation in education policy development: Ontario’s Heritage Languages Program.” Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development41(4): 320–332. 10.1080/01434632.2019.1618318
    https://doi.org/10.1080/01434632.2019.1618318 [Google Scholar]
  36. Kusters, Annelies,
    eds. 2020Sign Language Ideologies in Practice. Berlin: Mouton De Gruyter. 10.1515/9781501510090
    https://doi.org/10.1515/9781501510090 [Google Scholar]
  37. Lakeland College
    Lakeland Collegen.d. Human Services: Sign language interpretation: Overview. Retrieved fromhttps://lakelandcollege.ca/academics/human-services/programs/sign-language-interpretation/overview/
  38. Lamberink, Liny
    2020, April5. Sign language interpreters at media briefs should be normal: Accessibility advocates. CBC News. www.cbc.ca/news/canada/london/sign-language-interpreters-at-media-briefs-should-be-normal-accessibility-advocates-1.5522160
    [Google Scholar]
  39. Mackie, John
    2020, March25. Vancouver sign-language interpreter takes it to next level, gains following during crisis. Vancouver Sun. https://vancouversun.com/news/local-news/vancouver-sign-language-interpreter-takes-it-to-next-level-gains-following-during-crisis/
    [Google Scholar]
  40. Malcolm, Karen
    2017 Interpreter education in Canada: Where are we now?AVLIC News33(2). https://mailchi.mp/2d5aec64418c/avlic-news-fall-2017-edition
    [Google Scholar]
  41. Meyer, Lucas
    2020, April1. The province in his hands: Sign language interpreter appreciates positive feedback. Newstalk 1010. www.iheartradio.ca/newstalk-1010/news/the-province-in-his-hands-sign-language-interpreter-appreciates-positive-feedback-1.11406382
    [Google Scholar]
  42. Minister of Industry
    Minister of Industry 2020Canada’s Communications Future: Time to Act. Ottawa, ON: Innovation, Science and Economic Development Canada. Retrieved fromwww.ic.gc.ca/eic/site/110.nsf/eng/00012.html
    [Google Scholar]
  43. Napier, Jemima, et al
    2021A Demographic Snapshot of the Profession: The 2021 Census of Sign Language Translators & Interpreters in the UK. Research Report. Association of Sign Language Interpreters. https://asli.org.uk/wp-content/uploads/2021/09/Census-Project-report_Final-August2021.pdf
    [Google Scholar]
  44. National Occupation Standards
    National Occupation Standards. n.d.Repository for all approved National Occupation Standards. www.ukstandards.org.uk/EN
    [Google Scholar]
  45. National Register of Communication Professionals working with Deaf and Deafblind people
    National Register of Communication Professionals working with Deaf and Deafblind people. n.d.Home. www.nrcpd.org.uk/index.php
    [Google Scholar]
  46. Nigel Howard ASL Interpreter Fan Club
    Nigel Howard ASL Interpreter Fan Club. n.d.InFacebook [Facebook page]. Retrieved fromwww.facebook.com/Nigel-Howard-ASL-Interpreter-Fan-Club-110038883959428/
    [Google Scholar]
  47. Nova Scotia Community College
    Nova Scotia Community College 2021 American Sign Language-English interpretation. Retrieved fromwww.nscc.ca/Learning_Programs/Programs/PlanDescr.aspx?prg=ASLA&pln=AMSIGNLANG
  48. Obasi, Chijioke
    2013 Race and ethnicity in sign language interpreter education, training and practice. Race Ethnicity and Education16(1): 103–120. 10.1080/13613324.2012.733686
    https://doi.org/10.1080/13613324.2012.733686 [Google Scholar]
  49. Ontario Association of the Deaf
    Ontario Association of the Deaf 2020a, March17. OAD’s update and announcement [Video]. YouTube. https://youtu.be/1YjsTc70vK4
    [Google Scholar]
  50. Ontario Association of the Deaf
    Ontario Association of the Deaf 2020b, March23. OAD’s update on accessibility for emergency public announcements [Video]. YouTube. https://youtu.be/KN8CvuG_6v4
    [Google Scholar]
  51. Ontario Association of the Deaf
    Ontario Association of the Deaf 2020c, March24. OAD’s update on accessibility for emergency public announcements [Video]. YouTube. https://youtu.be/gDeSdJXNtPA
    [Google Scholar]
  52. Paul, Jennifer Jackson and Kristin Snoddon
    2017 “Framing deaf children’s right to sign language in the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms.” Canadian Journal of Disability Studies6(1): 1–27. 10.15353/cjds.v6i1.331
    https://doi.org/10.15353/cjds.v6i1.331 [Google Scholar]
  53. Persaud-Dhunmoon, Gaitrie
    2020, May27. Open Letter from Culturally Linguistic persons & the IBPOC (Indigenous, Black & People of Color) Deaf community. www.facebook.com/tpersaud2 [Facebook update]. Retrieved fromwww.facebook.com/tpersaud2/posts/10103828470651165
  54. Player, David [Google Scholar]
  55. Red River College
    Red River Collegen.d.ASL-English interpretation. Retrieved fromhttps://catalogue.rrc.ca/Programs/WPG/Fulltime/AMSIF-DP
  56. Registry of Interpreters for the Deaf
    Registry of Interpreters for the Deaf 2018Annual report 2018. Retrieved fromhttps://rid.org/2018-annual-report/
    [Google Scholar]
  57. Registry of Interpreters for the Deaf
    Registry of Interpreters for the Deaf 2020aCertified Deaf Interpreter (CDI). Retrieved fromhttps://rid.org/rid-certification-overview/available-certification/cdi-certification/
    [Google Scholar]
  58. Registry of Interpreters for the Deaf
    Registry of Interpreters for the Deaf 2020bPosition statement: CDIs at press conferences. Retrieved fromhttps://rid.org/rid-position-statement-cdis-at-press-conferences/
    [Google Scholar]
  59. Russell, Debra
    2021 “Critical perspectives on education mediated by sign language interpreters: Inclusion or the illusion of illusion?” InCritical Perspectives on Plurilingualism in Deaf Education, ed. byKristin Snoddon and Joanne Weber, 217–239. Bristol, UK: Multilingual Matters. 10.21832/9781800410756‑013
    https://doi.org/10.21832/9781800410756-013 [Google Scholar]
  60. Russell, Debra and Joseph McLaughlin
    2018, May1. Report on BAF Pilot Screening of Interpreting during Television Broadcasts. Canadian Hearing Services.
    [Google Scholar]
  61. SRV Canada VRS
    SRV Canada VRS. n.d.About CAV and Canada VRS. Retrieved fromhttps://srvcanadavrs.ca/en/about/
  62. Shea, Courtney
    2020, April3. “I had to learn the sign for Covid-19”: A Q&A with Christopher Desloges, who became an overnight celebrity as Doug Ford’s sign-language interpreter. Toronto Life. https://torontolife.com/city/i-had-to-learn-the-sign-for-covid-19-a-qa-with-christopher-desloges-who-became-an-overnight-celebrity-as-doug-fords-sign-language-interpreter/
    [Google Scholar]
  63. Signature
    Signature 2020Qualification specification: Signature level 6 diploma in sign language interpreting and translation (RQF). www.signature.org.uk/docs/qualification_specifications2020-21/INTRA6_FINAL_16%20December_2019.pdf
    [Google Scholar]
  64. Smith, Cheri, Ella Mae Lentz, and Ken Mikos
    2008Signing Naturally Units 1–6 Teacher’s Curriculum. San Diego, CA: Dawn Sign Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  65. Snoddon, Kristin and Jennifer Jackson Paul
    2020 “Framing sign language as a health need in Canadian and international policy.” Maternal and Child Health Journal241: 1360–1364. 10.1007/s10995‑020‑02974‑8
    https://doi.org/10.1007/s10995-020-02974-8 [Google Scholar]
  66. Snoddon, Kristin and Kathryn Underwood
    2017 “Deaf time in the twenty-first century: Considering rights frameworks and the social relational model of deaf childhood.” Disability & Society32(9): 1400–1415. 10.1080/09687599.2017.1320269
    https://doi.org/10.1080/09687599.2017.1320269 [Google Scholar]
  67. Snoddon, Kristin and Erin Wilkinson
    2019 “Problematizing the legal recognition of sign languages in Canada.” Canadian Modern Language Review75(2): 128–144. 10.3138/cmlr.2018‑0232
    https://doi.org/10.3138/cmlr.2018-0232 [Google Scholar]
  68. 2021 “Vulnerabilities, challenges, and risks in sign language recognition in Canada.” InTaking Risks in Applied Linguistics, ed. byClare Cunningham and Christopher J. Hall, 111–127. Bristol, UK: Multilingual Matters. 10.21832/9781788928243‑009
    https://doi.org/10.21832/9781788928243-009 [Google Scholar]
  69. Stone, Christopher
    2009Towards a Deaf Translation Norm. Washington, DC: Gallaudet University Press. 10.2307/j.ctv2rcng24
    https://doi.org/10.2307/j.ctv2rcng24 [Google Scholar]
  70. Tolbert, Pamela S. and Lynne G. Zucker
    1996 “The institutionalization of institutional theory.” InHandbook of Organization Studies, ed. byStewart R. Clegg, Cynthia Hardy, and Walter R. Nord, 175–190. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
    [Google Scholar]
  71. Turner, Graham H. and Jemina Napier
    2014 “On the importance of professional sign language interpreting to political participation.” InUNCRPD Implementation in Europe: A deaf perspective. Article 29: Participation in Political and Public Life, ed. byAnnika Pabsch, 56–73. Brussels: European Union of the Deaf.
    [Google Scholar]
  72. Université du Québec à Montréal
    Université du Québec à Montréal 2020 Major in French-Quebec Sign Language interpretation. Retrieved fromhttps://etudier.uqam.ca/programme?code=6013
  73. West-Oyedele, Erica
    2015 Persistence of African-American/Black signed language interpreters in the United States: The importance of culture and capital. Unpublished M.A. thesis. Western Oregon University.
    [Google Scholar]
  74. World Federation of the Deaf and World Association of Sign Language Interpreters
    World Federation of the Deaf and World Association of Sign Language Interpreters 2020, March19. Guidelines on Providing Access to Public Health Information in National Sign Languages during the Coronavirus Pandemic. Retrieved fromhttps://wfdeaf.org/news/3-important-key-points-how-do-your-country-make-sure-all-deaf-people-are-updated-on-the-latest-news/
    [Google Scholar]
  75. Wood, K.
    2023, February2. Transcription: English Video: 3:46 Title: The panel discussion: Interpreter Training Program updates [Facebook update]. Retrieved fromwww.facebook.com/groups/canadadeafgrassrootsmovement/permalink/1454710832022710/
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journals/10.1075/tis.21005.sno
Loading
This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was successful
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error