1887
image of The translator as rereader
USD
Buy:$35.00 + Taxes

Abstract

Abstract

A. K. Ramanujan’s complicated invocations of fidelity in the paratexts of his pioneering translations have invited analyses that focus on contradictions and paradoxes in his translation theory and practice. Providing a brief historical overview of translation in the South Asian context, this article contextualizes fidelity as a colonial remnant produced due to Ramanujan’s need to move between two disparate models of translation. Emphasizing Ramanujan’s identity as a poet-translator, I claim that his translation practice should be seen to have a poetics of its own; the impression of contradiction or paradox is resolved and the colonial remnant of fidelity decentralized if we consider this poetics to be a deeply hermeneutic act. I describe Ramanujan’s translation poetics to be defined by rereading, such that the translator is not just a reader nor fully a writer, but one who straddles both roles with ease to exist in community with other readers.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.1075/tis.22024.ray
2022-08-11
2022-09-26
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

References

  1. Anantha Murthy, U. R.
    1978Samskara: A Rite for a Dead Man. Translated byA. K. Ramanujan. New Delhi: Oxford University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Ahmed, Siraj
    2018Archaeology of Babel: The Colonial Foundation of the Humanities. Stanford: Stanford University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Apter, Emily
    2013Against World Literature: On the Politics of Untranslatability. London: Verso Books.
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Arrojo, Rosemary
    2002 “Writing, interpreting, and the power struggle for the control of meaning: Scenes from Kafka, Borges, and Kosztolányi.” InTranslation and Power, ed.Maria Tymoczko and Edwin Gentzler, 63–79. Amherst, MA: University of Massachusetts Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Asad, Talal
    1995 “A comment on translation, critique, and subversion.” InBetween Languages and Cultures: Translation and Cross-Cultural Texts, ed. byAnuradha Dingwaney and Carol Maier, 325–332. Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  6. Barthes, Roland
    1974S/Z. Translated byRichard Miller. New York: Hill and Wang.
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Bassnett, Susan
    2007 “Writing and translating.” InThe Translator as Writer, ed. bySusan Bassnett and Peter Bush, 173–182. London: Bloomsbury.
    [Google Scholar]
  8. 2011Reflections on Translation. Bristol: Channel View Publications. 10.21832/9781847694102
    https://doi.org/10.21832/9781847694102 [Google Scholar]
  9. Ben-Herut, Gil
    2021 “From marginal to canonical: The afterlife of a late medieval Telugu hagiography in a Kannada translation.” Translation Studies14(2): 133–149. 10.1080/14781700.2021.1888785
    https://doi.org/10.1080/14781700.2021.1888785 [Google Scholar]
  10. Benjamin, Walter
    1968 “The task of the translator: An introduction to the translation of Baudelaire’s Tableaux parisiens.” InIlluminations. Translated byHarry Zohn. New York: Schocken Books.
    [Google Scholar]
  11. Bennett, Karen and Rita Queiroz de Barros
    eds. 2019Hybrid Englishes and the Challenges of/for Translation: Identity, Mobility and Language Change. London: Routledge. 10.4324/9781315142333
    https://doi.org/10.4324/9781315142333 [Google Scholar]
  12. Chakravarty, Radha
    2021 “Textual encounters: Tagore’s translations of medieval poetry.” Translation Studies14(2): 167–184. 10.1080/14781700.2021.1909493
    https://doi.org/10.1080/14781700.2021.1909493 [Google Scholar]
  13. Chandran, Mini
    2011 “The translator as ideal reader: Variant readings of Anandamath.” Translation Studies4(3): 297–309. 10.1080/14781700.2011.589653
    https://doi.org/10.1080/14781700.2011.589653 [Google Scholar]
  14. Cheyfitz, Eric
    1991The Poetics of Imperialism: Translation and Colonization from “The Tempest” to “Tarzan.”New York: Oxford University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  15. Cordingley, Anthony, and Céline Frigau Manning
    2017 “What is collaborative translation?” InCollaborative Translation: From the Renaissance to the Digital Age, ed. byAnthony Cordingley and Céline Frigau Manning, 1–30. London: Bloomsbury.
    [Google Scholar]
  16. Devy, Ganesh
    1999 “Translation and literary history–an Indian view.” InPostcolonial Translation: Theory and Practice, ed. bySusan Bassnett and Harish Trivedi, 182–188. London: Routledge.
    [Google Scholar]
  17. Dharwadker, Vinay
    1999 “A.K. Ramanujan’s theory and practice of translation.” InPostcolonial Translation: Theory and Practice, ed. bySusan Bassnett and Harish Trivedi, 114–140. London: Routledge.
    [Google Scholar]
  18. Eliot, T. S.
    2012 (1920) “Tradition and the individual talent.” InThe Sacred Wood: Essays on Poetry and Criticism. London: Methuen, 47–59.
    [Google Scholar]
  19. Fernández, Fruela and Jonathan Evans
    eds. 2018The Routledge Handbook of Translation and Politics. London: Routledge. 10.4324/9781315621289
    https://doi.org/10.4324/9781315621289 [Google Scholar]
  20. Gallien, Claire
    2021 “From one empire to the next: The reconfigurations of “Indian” literatures from Persian to English translations.” Translation Studies14(2): 225–241. 10.1080/14781700.2019.1678069
    https://doi.org/10.1080/14781700.2019.1678069 [Google Scholar]
  21. Gramling, David
    2016The Invention of Monolingualism. New York: Bloomsbury.
    [Google Scholar]
  22. Israel, Hephzibah
    2018 “History, language and translation: Claiming the Indian nation.” InThe Routledge Handbook of Translation and Politics, ed. byFruela Fernández and Jonathan Evans, 386–400. London: Routledge. 10.4324/9781315621289‑25
    https://doi.org/10.4324/9781315621289-25 [Google Scholar]
  23. 2019a “Translation, conversion and the containment of proliferation.” Religion49(3): 388–412. 10.1080/0048721X.2019.1627786
    https://doi.org/10.1080/0048721X.2019.1627786 [Google Scholar]
  24. ed. 2019bTranslation Studies14(2). Special issue: Translation in India.
    [Google Scholar]
  25. Kothari, Rita
    2003Translating India. London: Routledge.
    [Google Scholar]
  26. Lal, Purushottama
    1996Transcreation. Seven Essays on the Art of Transcreation. Calcutta: A Writer’s Workshop Publication.
    [Google Scholar]
  27. Lennon, Brian
    2010In Babel’s Shadow: Multilingual Literatures, Monolingual States. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press. 10.5749/minnesota/9780816665013.001.0001
    https://doi.org/10.5749/minnesota/9780816665013.001.0001 [Google Scholar]
  28. Mufti, Aamir R.
    2016Forget English!: Orientalisms and World Literatures. Cambridge: Harvard University Press. 10.4159/9780674915404
    https://doi.org/10.4159/9780674915404 [Google Scholar]
  29. Mukherjee, Sujit
    2009 (1994) “Translation as new writing.” InTranslation Studies, ed. byMona Baker, 54–60. Milton Park: Routledge.
    [Google Scholar]
  30. Nammāḷvār
    Nammāḷvār 1992Hymns for the Drowning: Poems for Viṣṇu by Nammāḷvār. Translated byA. K. Ramanujan. New Delhi: Penguin Books.
    [Google Scholar]
  31. Nerlekar, Anjali
    2016Bombay Modern: Arun Kolatkar and Bilingual Literary Culture. Northwestern University Press. 10.2307/j.ctv47w98x
    https://doi.org/10.2307/j.ctv47w98x [Google Scholar]
  32. Niranjana, Tejaswini
    1992Siting Translation: History, Post-Structuralism, and the Colonial Context. Berkeley: University of California Press. 10.1525/9780520911369
    https://doi.org/10.1525/9780520911369 [Google Scholar]
  33. Patnaik, Priyadarshi
    2006 “Translation and the Indian tradition: Some illustrations, some insights.” Translation Today3 (1–2): 146–161. 10.46623/tt/2006.3.1n2.ar6
    https://doi.org/10.46623/tt/2006.3.1n2.ar6 [Google Scholar]
  34. Patke, Rajeev S.
    2001 “The ambivalence of poetic self-exile: The case of A. K. Ramanujan.” Jouvert: A Journal of Postcolonial Studies5(2).
    [Google Scholar]
  35. Peirce, Charles Sanders
    1940 “Logic as semiotic.” InPhilosophical Writings of Peirce, ed. byJustus Buchler, 88–119. ReprintedNew York: Dover 1955.
    [Google Scholar]
  36. Pratt, Mary Louise
    1991 “Arts of the Contact Zone.” Profession33–40.
    [Google Scholar]
  37. Ramanujan, A. K.
    1965Fifteen Poems from a Classical Tamil Anthology. Calcutta: Writer’s Workshop.
    [Google Scholar]
  38. 1967The Interior Landscape: Classical Tamil Love Poems. New York: New York Review Books.
    [Google Scholar]
  39. 1973Speaking of Śiva. New Delhi: Penguin Books.
    [Google Scholar]
  40. 1981Hymns for the Drowning: Poems for Visnu by Nammalvar. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  41. 1985Poems of Love and War: From the Eight Anthologies and the Ten Long Poems of Classical Tamil. New York: Columbia University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  42. Ramanujan, A. K., Velcheru Narayana Rao, and David Shulman
    eds. 1994When God is a Customer: Telugu Courtesan Songs by Kṣetrayya and Others. Berkeley: University of California Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  43. Ramanujan, A. K.
    1999The Collected Essays of A. K. Ramanujan. Edited byVinay Dharwadker. New Delhi: Oxford University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  44. 2019Journeys: A Poet’s Diary. Edited byKrishna Ramanujan and Guillermo Rodríguez. Gurgaon: Penguin.
    [Google Scholar]
  45. Ray, Sohomjit
    2019a “Gendering the untranslatable in the world literary market: Reading Rabindranath Tagore’s ‘Shasti’ (1893) in translation.” The Translator25(2): 130–141. 10.1080/13556509.2019.1650584
    https://doi.org/10.1080/13556509.2019.1650584 [Google Scholar]
  46. 2019b “Multilingual reader, translingual reading: Unmaking the Anglonormativity of world literature in Amitav Ghosh’s Sea of Poppies.” InHybrid Englishes and the Challenges of/for Translation: Identity, Mobility and Language Change, ed. byKaren Bennett and Rita Queiroz de Barros, 73–91. London: Routledge. 10.4324/9781315142333‑5
    https://doi.org/10.4324/9781315142333-5 [Google Scholar]
  47. 2022 “Translation, poetics of instability, and the postmonolingual condition in Jhumpa Lahiri’s In Other Words.” Modern Fiction Studies68 (3): 544–565
    [Google Scholar]
  48. Ricci, Ronit and Jan van der Putten
    eds. (2011) Translation in Asia: Theories, Practices, Histories. New York: Routledge.
    [Google Scholar]
  49. Rodríguez, Guillermo
    2016When Mirrors are Windows: A View of A. K. Ramanujan’s Poetics. New Delhi. Oxford University Press. 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199463602.001.0001
    https://doi.org/10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199463602.001.0001 [Google Scholar]
  50. Shankar, Subramanian
    2012Flesh and Fish Blood: Postcolonialism, Translation, and the Vernacular. Berkeley: University of California Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  51. Simon, Sherry
    2009 “A. K. Ramanujan: What happened in the library.” InDecentering Translation Studies: India and Beyond, ed. byJudy Wakabayashi and Rita Kothari, 161–174. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. 10.1075/btl.86.14sim
    https://doi.org/10.1075/btl.86.14sim [Google Scholar]
  52. Spivak, Gayatri Chakravorty
    1993 “The politics of translation.” InOutside in the Teaching Machine, 179–200. New York: Routledge.
    [Google Scholar]
  53. Spacks, Patricia Meyers
    2011On Rereading. Cambridge: The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press. 10.4159/harvard.9780674063310
    https://doi.org/10.4159/harvard.9780674063310 [Google Scholar]
  54. Trivedi, Harish
    2006 “In our own time, on our own terms.” InTranslating Others, ed. byTheo Hermans, 102–119. Manchester: St. Jerome.
    [Google Scholar]
  55. Tymoczko, Maria
    2010 “Western metaphorical discourses implicit in translation studies.” InThinking Through Translation with Metaphors, ed. byJames St. André, 109–143. Manchester: St. Jerome.
    [Google Scholar]
  56. Venuti, Lawrence
    1995The Translator’s Invisibility: A History of Translation. Second Edition. London: Routledge.
    [Google Scholar]
  57. 2019Contra Instrumentalism: A Translation Polemic. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press. 10.2307/j.ctvgc62bf
    https://doi.org/10.2307/j.ctvgc62bf [Google Scholar]
  58. Viswanathan, Gauri
    1989Masks of Conquest: Literary Study and British Rule in India. New York: Columbia University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  59. Walkowitz, Rebecca
    2015Born Translated: The Contemporary Novel in an Age of World Literature. New York: Columbia University Press. 10.7312/walk16594
    https://doi.org/10.7312/walk16594 [Google Scholar]
  60. Yadav, Manoj Kumar
    2021 “Early nineteenth-century Hindi/Urdu/Hindustani translations and the politics of emerging linguistic categories.” Translation Studies14(2): 206–224. 10.1080/14781700.2021.1893213
    https://doi.org/10.1080/14781700.2021.1893213 [Google Scholar]
  61. Yildiz, Yasemin
    2012Beyond the Mother Tongue: The Postmonolingual Condition. New York: Fordham University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  62. Zechhini, Laetitia
    2014Arun Kolatkar and Literary Modernism in India: Moving Lines. New Delhi: Bloomsbury.
    [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journals/10.1075/tis.22024.ray
Loading
  • Article Type: Research Article
Keywords: A. K. Ramanujan ; poetics ; rereading ; literary translation ; South Asia
This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was successful
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error