1887
Volume 9, Issue 1
  • ISSN 2211-3711
  • E-ISSN: 2211-372X
USD
Buy:$35.00 + Taxes

Abstract

Abstract

Translators have worked with the assistance of computers for many years, usually translating whole texts, divided into segments but in sequential order. In order to maximise efficiency and inspired by similar moves in the tech industry and predictions for Industry 4.0, large translation companies have begun to break tasks down into smaller chunks and to rigidly define and monitor translation processes. This is particularly true of platform-mediated work, highly collaborative workflows, and multimedia work that requires near-live turnaround times. This article considers such workflows in the context of measures of job satisfaction and discussion of sustainable work systems, proposing that companies prioritise long-term returns and attempt to balance the needs of all stakeholders in a translation process. Translators and translator trainers also have a role to play in achieving this balance.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.1075/ts.00019.moo
2020-08-17
2020-09-20
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

References

  1. Abdallah, Kristiina
    2010 “Translator’s Agency in Production Networks.” InTranslator’s Agency, edited byTuija Kinnunen and Kaisa Koskinen, 11–46. Tampere: Tampere University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Abdallah, Kristiina, and Kaisa Koskinen
    2007 “Managing Trust: Translating and the Network Economy.” Meta: Journal des traducteurs52 (4): 673–687. 10.7202/017692ar
    https://doi.org/10.7202/017692ar [Google Scholar]
  3. Ajunwa, Ifeoma
    . Forthcoming. “The Paradox of Automation as Anti-Bias Intervention.” Cardozo Law Review. doi:  10.2139/ssrn.2746078
    https://doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.2746078 [Google Scholar]
  4. Bass, Scott
    2006 “Quality in the Real World.” InPerspectives on Localization, edited byKeiran Dunne, 69–96. Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins. 10.1075/ata.xiii.07bas
    https://doi.org/10.1075/ata.xiii.07bas [Google Scholar]
  5. Bauman, Zygmunt
    2000Liquid modernity. Cambridge: Polity.
    [Google Scholar]
  6. Berardi, Franco ‘Bifo’
    2012 “Semio-Capital and the Problem of Solidarity.” Panel contribution toWe Have Our Own Concept of Time and Motion, organized by Auto Italia in collaboration withFederico Campagna, Huw Lemmey, Michael Oswell, and Charlie Woolley, August 2011 Accessed2 March 2020, https://libcom.org/book/export/html/45057
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Bernal-Merino, Miguel Ángel
    2013 “The Localisation of Video Games.” PhD thesis, Imperial College, London.
  8. Bodie, Matthew T., Miriam A. Cherry, Marcia L. McCormick, and Jintong Tang
    2016 “The Law and Policy of People Analytics.” University of Colorado Law Review88 (4): 961–1042.
    [Google Scholar]
  9. Bond, Esther
    2018a “The Stunning Variety of Job Titles in the Language Industry.” Slator. Accessed27 December 2019, https://slator.com/features/the-stunning-variety-of-job-titles-in-the-language-industry/
    [Google Scholar]
  10. 2018b “Alpha Rebounds from Losses, Says Tech May Degrade Environment for Translators.” Slator. Accessed27 December 2019, https://slator.com/financial-results/alpha-rebounds-from-losses-says-tech-may-degrade-environment-for-translators/
    [Google Scholar]
  11. 2019 “IYUNO Media Group and BTI Studios Merge in Deal That Will Reshape Media Localization.” Slator. Accessed12 November 2019, https://slator.com/ma-and-funding/iyuno-media-group-and-bti-studios-merge-in-deal-that-will-reshape-media-localization/
    [Google Scholar]
  12. Brödner, Peter
    2009 “Sustainability in Knowledge-Based Companies.” InCreating Sustainable Work Systems: Developing Social Sustainability, edited byPeter Docherty, Mari Kira, and A. B. (Rami) Shari, 53–69. Abingdon: Routledge.
    [Google Scholar]
  13. Campbell, Iain, Ian Watson, and John Buchanan
    2004 “Temporary Agency Work in Australia (Part I).” InInternational perspectives on temporary work, edited byJohn Burgess and Julia Connell, 129–144. Abingdon: Routledge.
    [Google Scholar]
  14. Carr, Nicholas
    2010The Shallows. London: Atlantic Books.
    [Google Scholar]
  15. Caruso, Loris
    2018 “Digital Innovation and the Fourth Industrial Revolution: Epochal Social Changes?” AI & Society33: 379–392. 10.1007/s00146‑017‑0736‑1
    https://doi.org/10.1007/s00146-017-0736-1 [Google Scholar]
  16. Chesterman, Andrew
    1997Memes of Translation: The Spread of Ideas in Translation Theory. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. 10.1075/btl.22
    https://doi.org/10.1075/btl.22 [Google Scholar]
  17. Conti, Robert F., and Malcolm Warner
    1994 “Taylorism, Teams and Technology in ‘Reengineering’ Work-Organization.” New Technology, Work and Employment9 (2): 93–102. 10.1111/j.1468‑005X.1994.tb00053.x
    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-005X.1994.tb00053.x [Google Scholar]
  18. Courtney, Jennifer, and Mary Phelan
    2019 “Translators’ Experiences of Occupational Stress and Job Satisfaction.” Translation and Interpreting11 (1): 100–113. 10.12807/ti.111201.2019.a06
    https://doi.org/10.12807/ti.111201.2019.a06 [Google Scholar]
  19. Cronin, Michael
    2017Eco-translation: Translation and Ecology in the Age of the Anthropocene. Abingdon: Routledge. 10.4324/9781315689357
    https://doi.org/10.4324/9781315689357 [Google Scholar]
  20. CSA Research
    CSA Research 2019 “The Largest Language Service Providers: 2019.” Accessed6 September 2019, https://csa-research.com/More/Global-Market-Study/Top-100-LSPs
  21. Dachs, Bernhard
    2018The Impact of New Technologies on the Labour Market and the Social Economy. Brussels: European Parliament’s Science and Technology Options Assessment (STOA).
    [Google Scholar]
  22. Dam, Helle V., and Katherine K. Zethsen
    2008 “Translator Status: A Study of Danish Company Translators.” The Translator14 (1): 71–96. doi:  10.1080/13556509.2008.10799250
    https://doi.org/10.1080/13556509.2008.10799250 [Google Scholar]
  23. De George, Richard T.
    2014Business Ethics. Seventh Edition. Essex: Pearson.
    [Google Scholar]
  24. De Stefano, Valerio, and Antonio Aloisi
    2018 “Fundamental Labour Rights, Platform Work and Human-Rights Protection of Non-Standard Workers.” InResearch Handbook on Labour, Business and Human Rights Law, edited byJanice R. Bellace and Beryl ter Haar, 359–379. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Publishing.
    [Google Scholar]
  25. Docherty, Peter, Mari Kira, and A. B. (Rami) Shari
    2008 “What the World Needs Now is Sustainable Work Systems”. InCreating Sustainable Work Systems: Developing Social Sustainability, edited byPeter Docherty, Mari Kira, and A. B. (Rami) Shari, 1–22. Abingdon: Routledge. 10.4324/9780203890028.ch1
    https://doi.org/10.4324/9780203890028.ch1 [Google Scholar]
  26. Dranch, Konstantin, Renato Beninatto, and Tucker Johnson
    2019 “Nimdzi 100.” nimdzi Market Reports. Accessed6 September 2019, https://www.nimdzi.com/2019-nimdzi-100/
    [Google Scholar]
  27. Drury, Horace Bookwalter
    1915 “Scientific Management. A History and Criticism.” PhD thesis, Columbia University. Accessed2 March 2020, https://archive.org/details/scientificmanage00drurrich/page/n5
  28. Durban, Chris
    2011Translation: Getting It Right. A Guide to Buying Translation. Virginia: American Translators Association. Accessed2 March 2020, https://www.atanet.org/publications/getting_it_right.php
    [Google Scholar]
  29. Ebert, Philip, and Wolfgang Frebichler
    2017 “Nudge Management: Applying Behavioural Science to Increase Knowledge Worker Productivity.” Journal of Organization Design6:4. doi:  10.1186/s41469‑017‑0014‑1
    https://doi.org/10.1186/s41469-017-0014-1 [Google Scholar]
  30. Elkington, John
    1999 “Triple Bottom-Line Reporting: Looking for Balance.” Australian CPA69 (2): 18–22.
    [Google Scholar]
  31. Ferraro, Tania, Leonor Pais, and Nuno Rebelo Dos Santos
    2015 “Decent Work: An Aim for All Made by All.” International Journal of Social SciencesIV (3): 30–42. doi:  10.20472/SS2015.4.3.003
    https://doi.org/10.20472/SS2015.4.3.003 [Google Scholar]
  32. Freeman, R. Edward
    1984Strategic Management: A Stakeholder Approach. Boston: Pitman.
    [Google Scholar]
  33. Friedman, Milton
    1970 “The Social Responsibility of Business Is to Increase Its Profits.” The New York Times Magazine, September13 1970.
    [Google Scholar]
  34. Frischmann, Brett, and Evan Selinger
    2018Re-Engineering Humanity. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 10.1017/9781316544846
    https://doi.org/10.1017/9781316544846 [Google Scholar]
  35. Garcia, Ignacio
    2017 “Translating in the Cloud Age: Online Marketplaces.” Hermes56: 59–70.
    [Google Scholar]
  36. Gazzaley, Adam, and Larry D. Rosen
    2016The Distracted Mind: Ancient Brains in a High-Tech World. Boston: MIT Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  37. Georgakopolou, Panayota
    2019 “The Future of Localisation Is Audiovisual.” InITI Research e-Book: Ethics and Machines in an Era of New Technologies, edited bySarah Bawa-Mason. London: Institute of Translation and Interpreting.
    [Google Scholar]
  38. Góis, António, and André F. T. Martins
    2019 “Translator2Vec: Understanding and Representing Human Post-Editors.” Paper presented at theMT Summit 2019, Dublin. Accessed2 March 2020, https://arxiv.org/abs/1907.10362
    [Google Scholar]
  39. Graeber, David
    2018Bullshit Jobs: A Theory. New York: Simon & Schuster.
    [Google Scholar]
  40. Graham, Dominic
    2019 “Future of the Deal: Macro Level Look at M&A.” Paper presented at theATC Language Industry Summit, September 2019.
    [Google Scholar]
  41. Gray, Mary L., and Siddharth Suri
    2019Ghost Work: How to Stop Silicon Valley from Building a New Global Underclass. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt.
    [Google Scholar]
  42. Hart, Stuart L.
    2007Capitalism at the Crossroads. Philadelphia, PA: Wharton School of Finance Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  43. Heinberg, Richard
    2011The End of Growth: Adapting to Our New Economic Reality. British Columbia: New Society Publishers.
    [Google Scholar]
  44. Herzberg, Frederik
    1959The Motivation to Work. New York: John Wiley & Sons.
    [Google Scholar]
  45. [1967] 1987 “One More Time: How Do You Motivate Employees?” Harvard Business Review, Reprint 87507.
    [Google Scholar]
  46. Jackson, Maggie
    2018Distracted: Reclaiming Our Focus in a World of Lost Attention. New York: Prometheus.
    [Google Scholar]
  47. Jemielity, David
    2018 “Translation in Intercultural Business and Economic Environments.” InThe Routledge Handbook of Translation and Culture, edited bySue-Ann Harding and Ovidi Carbondell Cortés, 533–557. Abingdon: Routledge. 10.4324/9781315670898‑30
    https://doi.org/10.4324/9781315670898-30 [Google Scholar]
  48. Jessop, Bob
    2007 “Fordism and Post-Fordism.” InEncyclopedia of Governance, edited byMark Bevir, 314–315. California: Sage. 10.4135/9781412952613.n191
    https://doi.org/10.4135/9781412952613.n191 [Google Scholar]
  49. Kovach, Kenneth A.
    1987 “What Motivates Employees? Workers and Supervisors Give Different Answers.” Business Horizons30 (5): 58–65. 10.1016/0007‑6813(87)90082‑6
    https://doi.org/10.1016/0007-6813(87)90082-6 [Google Scholar]
  50. Krifa/Happiness Research Institute
    Krifa/Happiness Research Institute 2019Job satisfaction index 2015 (Report). Copenhagen: Happiness Research Institute.
    [Google Scholar]
  51. Kronenberg, Kenneth
    2018 “A Timeline of RWS Acquisitions.” Accessed15 September 2019, www.kfkronenberg.com/Timeline_of_RWS_acquisitions.doc
  52. Lee, Dami
    2019 “Adobe Is Cutting Off Users in Venezuela Due to US Sanctions.” The Verge. Accessed24 October 2019, https://www.theverge.com/2019/10/7/20904030/adobe-venezuela-photoshop-behance-us-sanctions
    [Google Scholar]
  53. Llorens, Miguel
    2010 “A Personal Response to Lionbridge VP Didier Hélin’s Unilateral Demand of a 5% Discount.” Accessed30 October 2019, traductor-financiero.blogspot.com/2010/11/personal-response-to-lionbridge-vp.html
  54. Macey, William H., Benjamin Schneider, Karen M. Barbera, and Scott A. Young
    2011Employee Engagement: Tools for Analysis, Practice, and Competitive Advantage. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons.
    [Google Scholar]
  55. Mallon, Mary
    1998 “The Portfolio Career: Pushed or Pulled to it?” Personnel Review27 (5): 361–377. doi:  10.1108/00483489810230316
    https://doi.org/10.1108/00483489810230316 [Google Scholar]
  56. Moniz, Helena
    2019 “Crowdsourcing and Related Tools for Quality Monitoring in Post-Editing Machine Translation.” Paper presented at theMT Summit 2019, Dublin.
    [Google Scholar]
  57. Moore, Phoebe, and Andrew Robinson
    2016 “The Quantified Self: What Counts in the Neoliberal Workplace.” New Media & Society18 (11): 2774–2792. doi:  10.1177/1461444815604328
    https://doi.org/10.1177/1461444815604328 [Google Scholar]
  58. Moorkens, Joss
    2017 “Under Pressure: Translation in Times of Austerity.” Perspectives. Studies in Translation Theory and Practice. 25 (3): 464–477. doi:  10.1080/0907676X.2017.1285331
    https://doi.org/10.1080/0907676X.2017.1285331 [Google Scholar]
  59. 2020 “Comparative Satisfaction Among Freelance and Directly-Employed Irish-Language Translators.” Translation and Interpreting12 (1): 55–73. 10.12807/ti.112201.2020.a04
    https://doi.org/10.12807/ti.112201.2020.a04 [Google Scholar]
  60. Moorkens, Joss, and Marta Rocchi
    Forthcoming “Ethics in the Translation Industry.” InThe Routledge Handbook of Translation and Ethics, edited byKaisa Koskinen and Nike K. Pokorn. Abingdon: Routledge.
    [Google Scholar]
  61. O’Brien, Sharon
    2012 “Translation as Human-Computer Interaction.” Translation Spaces1: 101–122. doi:  10.1075/ts.1.05obr
    https://doi.org/10.1075/ts.1.05obr [Google Scholar]
  62. Olohan, Maeve, and Elena Davitti
    2015 “Dynamics of Trusting in Translation Project Management: Leaps of Faith and Balancing Acts.” Journal of Contemporary Ethnography46 (4): 391–416. 10.1177/0891241615603449
    https://doi.org/10.1177/0891241615603449 [Google Scholar]
  63. Parasuraman, Raja, Thomas B. Sheridan, and Christopher D. Wickens
    2000 “A Model for Types and Levels of Human Interaction with Automation.” IEEE Transactions on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics – Part A: Systems And Humans30 (3): 286–297. 10.1109/3468.844354
    https://doi.org/10.1109/3468.844354 [Google Scholar]
  64. Parenti, Christian
    2001 “Big Brother’s Corporate Cousin.” The Nation. Accessed7 October 2019, https://www.thenation.com/article/big-brothers-corporate-cousin/
    [Google Scholar]
  65. Pidchamook, Wichaya
    . Forthcoming. “Freelance Subtitlers in a Subtitle Production Network in the OTT Industry in Thailand: A Longitudinal Study.” PhD thesis, Dublin City University.
  66. Pielmeier, Hélène, and Paul O’Mara
    2020The State of the Linguist Supply Chain. CSA-Research. Accessed24 February 2020, https://insights.csa-research.com/reportaction/305013106/Toc
    [Google Scholar]
  67. Popper, Karl
    1970 “The Moral Responsibility of the Scientist.” InInduction, Physics and Ethics, edited byPaul Weingartner and Gerhard Zecha, 329–336. Dordrecht: Reidel. 10.1007/978‑94‑010‑3305‑3_14
    https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-010-3305-3_14 [Google Scholar]
  68. Postman, Neil
    1992Technopoly. London: Penguin Random House.
    [Google Scholar]
  69. Puttock, James
    2018 “Fast Track TV Subtitling: Past, Present and Future.” Paper presented at theLanguage and the Media Conference in Berlin, on5 October 2018.
    [Google Scholar]
  70. Pym, Anthony
    2012On Translator Ethics: Principles for Mediation Between Cultures. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. 10.1075/btl.104
    https://doi.org/10.1075/btl.104 [Google Scholar]
  71. Pym, Anthony, François Grin, Claudio Sfreddo, and Andy L. J. Chan
    2012 “The Status of the Translation Profession in the European Union.” Luxembourg: European Commission.
  72. Rodríguez-Castro, Monica
    2015 “Development and Empirical Validation of a Multifaceted Instrument for Translator Satisfaction.” Translation and Interpreting7 (2): 1–21.
    [Google Scholar]
  73. 2016 “Intrinsic and Extrinsic Sources of Translator Satisfaction: An Empirical Study.” Entreculturas7–8: 195–229.
    [Google Scholar]
  74. Roettgers, Janko
    2016 “The Technology Behind Netflix’s ‘Chelsea’ Talk Show.” Variety. Accessed30 October 2019, https://variety.com/2016/digital/news/netflix-chelsea-encoding-ui-translation-1201776469/
    [Google Scholar]
  75. Rubery, Jill
    2013 “From ‘Women and Recession’ to ‘Women and Austerity’: A Framework for Analysis.” InWomen and Austerity: The Economic Crisis and the Future for Gender Equality, edited byMaria Karamessini and Jill Rubery, 17–36. Abingdon: Routledge.
    [Google Scholar]
  76. Ruokonen, Minna
    2013 “Studying Translator Status: Three Points of View.” InPoint of view as Challenge, edited byMaria Eronen and Marinella Rodi-Risberg, 327–338. Vaasa: Vakki Publications.
    [Google Scholar]
  77. Sakamoto, Akiko
    2018 “Disruption in Translator-client Matching: Paid Crowdsourcing Platforms vs Human Project Managers.” Revista Tradumàtica16: 85–94.
    [Google Scholar]
  78. Scheiber, Noam, and Kate Conger
    2020 “The Great Google Revolt.” InThe New York Times. Accessed22 February 2020, https://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2020/02/18/magazine/google-revolt.html
    [Google Scholar]
  79. Sennett, Richard
    1998The Corrosion of Character. The Personal Consequences of Work in the New Capitalism. London: W.W. Norton.
    [Google Scholar]
  80. Shreve, Gregory M.
    2009 “Recipient-Orientation and Metacognition in the Translation Process.” InTranslators and their Readers. In Homage to Eugene A. Nida, edited byRodica Dimitriu, 255–270. Brussels: Les Editions du Hasard.
    [Google Scholar]
  81. Silva, Catarina
    2019 “Improving Domain Adaptation for Machine Translation with Translation Pieces.” Paper presented at theMT Summit 2019, Dublin.
    [Google Scholar]
  82. Smil, Vaclav
    2019Growth: From Microorganisms to Megacities. Boston: MIT Press. 10.7551/mitpress/12074.001.0001
    https://doi.org/10.7551/mitpress/12074.001.0001 [Google Scholar]
  83. Taylor, Frederick W.
    1911The Principles of Scientific Management. New York: Harper and brothers.
    [Google Scholar]
  84. Thompson, Edward P.
    1967 “Time, Work-Discipline, and Industrial Capitalism.” Past & Present38: 56–97. 10.1093/past/38.1.56
    https://doi.org/10.1093/past/38.1.56 [Google Scholar]
  85. Timmermans, Job, Bernd Carsten Stahl, Veikko Ikonen, and Engin Bozdag
    2010 “The Ethics of Cloud Computing: A Conceptual Review.” In2010 IEEE Second International Conference on Cloud Computing Technology and Science, 614–620. Indianapolis, IN, USA: IEEE. doi:  10.1109/CloudCom.2010.59
    https://doi.org/10.1109/CloudCom.2010.59 [Google Scholar]
  86. Tinsley, Royal L.
    1976 “Translation as a Career Option for Foreign Language Majors. CAL-ERIC/CLI Series on Languages and Linguistics, no. 37.” Bulletin of the Association of Departments of Foreign Languages. 7 (4). Washington DC: ERIC Clearinghouse on Languages and Linguistics.
    [Google Scholar]
  87. UN General Assembly
    UN General Assembly 2015Transforming our World: The 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. New York: United Nations.
    [Google Scholar]
  88. Wajcman, Judy
    2015Pressed for Time: The Acceleration of Life in Digital Capitalism. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  89. Wakabayashi, Daisuke
    2019 “Google Relies On Underclass Of Temp Labor.” InThe New York Times. Accessed27 December 2019, https://www.nytimes.com/2019/05/28/technology/google-temp-workers.html
    [Google Scholar]
  90. Walker, Charles R., and Robert H. Guest
    1952The Man On The Assembly Line. Cambridge: Harvard University Press. 10.4159/harvard.9780674599949
    https://doi.org/10.4159/harvard.9780674599949 [Google Scholar]
  91. Weizenbaum, Joseph
    1986 “Not Without Us.” English translation of a paper presented inGerman to the Association of Computer Professionals, West Germany, July 1986. Accessed19 August 2019, https://freegroups.net/guide/not_without_us/. 10.1145/15483.15484
    https://doi.org/10.1145/15483.15484 [Google Scholar]
  92. Wood, Alex J., Mark Graham, Vili Lehdonvirta, and Isis Hjorth
    2019 “Networked but Commodified: The (Dis)Embeddedness of Digital Labour in the Gig Economy.” Sociology53 (5): 931–950. 10.1177/0038038519828906
    https://doi.org/10.1177/0038038519828906 [Google Scholar]
  93. Zider, Bob
    1998 “How Venture Capital Works.” Harvard Business Review. November-December 1998 Accessed2 March 2020, wire.cs.nctu.edu.tw/ICT-lecture/lecture/Dennis%20Punjabi_Venture%20Capital_Overview_Havard.pdf
    [Google Scholar]
  94. Zink, Klaus J.
    2014 “Designing Sustainable Work Systems: The Need For A Systems Approach.” Applied Ergonomics45 (1): 126–132. 10.1016/j.apergo.2013.03.023
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apergo.2013.03.023 [Google Scholar]
  95. Zuboff, Shoshana
    2019The Age of Surveillance Capitalism: The Fight for a Human Future at the New Frontier of Power. London: Profile.
    [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journals/10.1075/ts.00019.moo
Loading
This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was successful
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error