1887
Volume 7, Issue 1
  • ISSN 2352-1805
  • E-ISSN: 2352-1813
USD
Buy:$35.00 + Taxes

Abstract

Abstract

While translation has recently had a comeback in language pedagogy, its applicability in classrooms with students from diverse linguistic backgrounds has been underexplored. In countries with increasing immigration and high intakes of international students, which is the case of Canada, language classrooms are intrinsically multilingual. This multilingual reality provides unique opportunities for students to use their linguistic repertoire while learning English – one of Canada’s official languages –, but teachers may be hesitant to use translation as a pedagogical tool if they do not speak the languages of their students. This paper reports on the results of a qualitative study with three teachers and 40 adult learners of English for Academic Purposes (EAP) in a Canadian university. All of the student participants had at least two languages in their repertoire, and 90% reported being plurilingual, that is, using several languages with varying levels of proficiency. With the exception of English, the language of instruction, the teachers did not share any of the languages spoken by the students. The study explored how the teachers used translation to engage students’ plurilingual repertoires and investigated students’ perceptions of translation practices. Data was gathered through student diaries and classroom observations. Results of deductive analyses show that translation, when used within a plurilingual approach, was helpful for making sense of English vocabulary. Moreover, students reported that translation across languages enhanced conceptual knowledge. The paper argues that translation as a process rather than an L2-L1 textual product can advance language learning in multilingual classes.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.1075/ttmc.00064.gal
2021-01-21
2021-05-07
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

References

  1. Arocena Egaña, Elizabet, Jasone Cenoz, and Durk Gorter
    2015 “Teachers’ Beliefs in Multilingual Education in the Basque Country and in Friesland.” Journal of Immersion and Content-Based Language Education3: 169–193. 10.1075/jicb.3.2.01aro
    https://doi.org/10.1075/jicb.3.2.01aro [Google Scholar]
  2. Baker, Mona
    2016Translating Dissent: Voices from and with the Egyptian Revolution. New York: Routledge.
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Ballinger, Susan
    2013 “Towards a Cross-linguistic Pedagogy: Biliteracy and Reciprocal Learning Strategies in French Immersion.” Journal of Immersion and Content-Based Education1 (1): 131–148. 10.1075/jicb.1.1.06bal
    https://doi.org/10.1075/jicb.1.1.06bal [Google Scholar]
  4. Blommaert, Jan
    2010The Sociolinguistics of Globalization. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 10.1017/CBO9780511845307
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511845307 [Google Scholar]
  5. Bruen, Jennifer, and Niamh Kelly
    2016 “Language Teaching in a Globalised World: Harnessing Linguistic Super-diversity in the Classroom.” International Journal of Multilingualism13 (3): 333–352. 10.1080/14790718.2016.1142548
    https://doi.org/10.1080/14790718.2016.1142548 [Google Scholar]
  6. Busch, Brigitta
    2017 “Expanding the Notion of the Linguistic Repertoire: On the Concept of Spracherleben – the Lived Experience.” Applied Linguistics38 (3): 340–358.
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Butzkamm, Wolfgang, and John A. W. Caldwell
    2009The Bilingual Reform: A Paradigm Shift in Foreign Language Teaching. Tübingen: Narr Studienbücher.
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Canga-Alonso, Andrés, and Andrea Rubio-Goitia
    2016 “Students’ Reflections on Pedagogical Translation in Spanish as a Foreign Language.” Tejuelo23: 132–157.
    [Google Scholar]
  9. Colina, Sonia, and Barbara A. Lafford
    2018 “Translation in Spanish Language Teaching: The Integration of a ‘Fifth Skill’ in the Second Language Curriculum.” Journal of Spanish Language Teaching4 (2): 110–123. 10.1080/23247797.2017.1407127
    https://doi.org/10.1080/23247797.2017.1407127 [Google Scholar]
  10. Government of Canada
    Government of Canada 2019Building on Success: International Education Strategy 2019–2024. AccessedOctober 2, 2020. https://www.international.gc.ca/education/assets/pdfs/ies-sei/Building-on-Success-International-Education-Strategy-2019-2024.pdf
    [Google Scholar]
  11. Canadian Bureau for International Education
    Canadian Bureau for International Education 2018International Students in Canada. AccessedOctober 2, 2020. https://cbie.ca/wp-content/uploads/2018/09/International-Students-in-Canada-ENG.pdf
    [Google Scholar]
  12. Canagarajah, Suresh
    2011 “Translanguaging in the Classroom: Emerging Issues for Research and Pedagogy.” Applied Linguistics Review2 (1): 1–28. 10.1515/9783110239331.1
    https://doi.org/10.1515/9783110239331.1 [Google Scholar]
  13. Carreres, Ángeles
    2006 “Strange Bedfellows: Translation and Language Teaching: The Teaching of Translation into L2 in Modern Languages Degree; Uses and Limitations.” ACTI Papers. AccessedOctober 2, 2020. www.cttic.org/ACTI/2006/papers/Carreres.pdf
    [Google Scholar]
  14. Carreres, Ángeles, and María Noriega-Sánchez
    2011 “Translation in Language Teaching: Insights from Professional Translator Training.” The Language Learning Journal39 (3): 281–297. 10.1080/09571736.2011.567356
    https://doi.org/10.1080/09571736.2011.567356 [Google Scholar]
  15. Carreres, Ángeles, María Noriega-Sánchez, and Carme Calduch
    2018Mundos en palabras: Learning Advanced Spanish through Translation. London: Routledge. 10.4324/9781315162379
    https://doi.org/10.4324/9781315162379 [Google Scholar]
  16. Cenoz, Jasone
    2017 “Translanguaging in School Contexts: International Perspectives.” Journal of Language, Identity and Education16 (4): 193–198. 10.1080/15348458.2017.1327816
    https://doi.org/10.1080/15348458.2017.1327816 [Google Scholar]
  17. Cook, Guy
    2010Translation in Language Teaching. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  18. Cook, Vivian
    2001 “Using the First Language in the Classroom.” Canadian Modern Language Review57 (3): 402–423. 10.3138/cmlr.57.3.402
    https://doi.org/10.3138/cmlr.57.3.402 [Google Scholar]
  19. Coste, Daniel, Danièle Moore, and Geneviève Zarate
    2009Plurilingual and Pluricultural Competence: Studies towards a Common European Framework of Reference for Language Learning and Teaching. AccessedOctober 2, 2020. https://rm.coe.int/168069d29b
    [Google Scholar]
  20. Council of Europe
    Council of Europe 2001Common European Framework of Reference for Languages: Learning, Teaching, Assessment. Strasbourg: Council of Europe.
    [Google Scholar]
  21. Council of Europe
    Council of Europe 2018Common European Framework of Reference for Languages: Learning, Teaching, Assessment. Companion Volume with New Descriptors. Strasbourg: Council of Europe.
    [Google Scholar]
  22. Cummins, Jim
    2009 “Multilingualism in the English-Language Classroom: Pedagogical Considerations.” TESOL Quarterly43 (2): 317–321. 10.1002/j.1545‑7249.2009.tb00171.x
    https://doi.org/10.1002/j.1545-7249.2009.tb00171.x [Google Scholar]
  23. 2017 “Teaching for Transfer in Multilingual School Contexts.” InBilingual and Multilingual Education, Encyclopedia of Language and Education, ed. byOfelia García, Angel Lin, and Stephen May, 103–115. New York: Springer. 10.1007/978‑3‑319‑02258‑1_8
    https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-02258-1_8 [Google Scholar]
  24. Galante, Angelica
    2018 Plurilingual or Monolingual? A Mixed Methods Study Investigating Plurilingual Instruction in an EAP Program at a Canadian University. PhD diss.University of Toronto. AccessedOctober 2, 2020. hdl.handle.net/1807/91806
  25. 2020a “Plurilingual and Pluricultural Competence (PPC) Scale: The Inseparability of Language and Culture.” International Journal of Multilingualism. AccessedOctober 2, 2020. doi:  10.1080/14790718.2020.1753747
    https://doi.org/10.1080/14790718.2020.1753747 [Google Scholar]
  26. 2020b “Plurilingualism and TESOL in Two Canadian Post-secondary Institutions: Towards Context-Specific Perspectives.” InPlurilingual Pedagogies: Critical and Creative Endeavours for Equitable Language in Education, ed. bySunny Man Chu Lau, and Saskia Van Viegen, 237–252. New York: Springer. 10.1007/978‑3‑030‑36983‑5_11
    https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-36983-5_11 [Google Scholar]
  27. Galante, Angelica, Kerstin Okubo, Christina Cole, Nermine Abd Elkader, Nicola Carozza, Claire Wilkinson, Charles Wotton, and Jelena Vasic
    2020 “‘English-Only is not the Way to Go’: Teachers’ Perceptions of Plurilingual Instruction in an English Program at a Canadian University.” TESOL Quarterly Journal. AccessedOctober 2, 2020. doi:  10.1002/tesq.584
    https://doi.org/10.1002/tesq.584 [Google Scholar]
  28. Galante, Angelica, Kerstin Okubo, Christina Cole, Nermine Abd Elkaber, Nicola Carozza, Claire Wilkinson, Charles Wotton, and Jelena Vasic
    2019 “Plurilingualism in Higher Education: A Collaborative Initiative for the Implementation of Plurilingual Tasks in an English for Academic Purposes Program at a Canadian University.” TESL Canada Journal36 (1): 121–133. 10.18806/tesl.v36i1.1305
    https://doi.org/10.18806/tesl.v36i1.1305 [Google Scholar]
  29. González-Davies, Maria
    2004Multiple Voices in the Translation Classroom: Activities, Tasks and Projects. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. 10.1075/btl.54
    https://doi.org/10.1075/btl.54 [Google Scholar]
  30. 2017 “The Use of Translation in an Integrated Plurilingual Approach to Language Learning: Teacher Strategies and Best Practices.” Journal of Spanish Language Teaching4 (2): 124–135. 10.1080/23247797.2017.1407168
    https://doi.org/10.1080/23247797.2017.1407168 [Google Scholar]
  31. Jiménez, Robert T., Sam David, Keenan Fagan, Victoria J. Risko, Mark Pacheco, Lisa Pray, and Mark Gonzales
    2015 “Using Translation to Drive Conceptual Development for Students Becoming Literate in English as an Additional Language.” Research in the Teaching of English49 (3): 248–271.
    [Google Scholar]
  32. Kelly, Niamh, and Jennifer Bruen
    2015 “Translation as a Pedagogical Tool in the Foreign Language Classroom: A Qualitative Study of Attributes and Behaviour.” Language Teaching Research19 (2): 150–168. 10.1177/1362168814541720
    https://doi.org/10.1177/1362168814541720 [Google Scholar]
  33. Kubota, Ryuko
    2016 “The Multi/plural Turn, Postcolonial Theory, and Neoliberal Multiculturalism: Complicities and Implications for Applied Linguistics.” Applied Linguistics37 (4): 474–494. 10.1093/applin/amu045
    https://doi.org/10.1093/applin/amu045 [Google Scholar]
  34. Lamb, Terry
    2015 “Towards a Plurilingual Habitus: Engendering Interlinguality in Urban Spaces.” International Journal of Pedagogies and Learning10 (2): 151–165. 10.1080/22040552.2015.1113848
    https://doi.org/10.1080/22040552.2015.1113848 [Google Scholar]
  35. Liao, Posen
    2006 “EFL Learners’ Beliefs about and Strategy Use of Translation in English Learning.” RELC Journal37 (2): 191–215. 10.1177/0033688206067428
    https://doi.org/10.1177/0033688206067428 [Google Scholar]
  36. May, Stephen
    ed. 2014The Multilingual Turn: Implications for SLA, TESOL and Bilingual Education. New York: Routledge.
    [Google Scholar]
  37. Moll, Luis, Cathy Amanti, Deborah Neff, and Norma Gonzalez
    1992 “Funds of Knowledge for Teaching: Using a Qualitative Approach.” Theory into Practice31 (2): 132–141. 10.1080/00405849209543534
    https://doi.org/10.1080/00405849209543534 [Google Scholar]
  38. Panzarella, Gioia, and Caterina Sinibaldi
    2018 “Translation in the Language Classroom: Multilingualism, Diversity Collaboration.” EuroAmerican Journal of Applied Linguistics and Languages5 (2): 62–75. 10.21283/2376905X.9.140
    https://doi.org/10.21283/2376905X.9.140 [Google Scholar]
  39. Patton, Michael Quinn
    2015Qualitative Research and Evaluation Methods. 4th ed.London: Sage.
    [Google Scholar]
  40. Piccardo, Enrica
    2019 “‘We are All (Potential) Plurilinguals’: Plurilingualism as an Overarching, Holistic Concept.” Cahiers de L’ILOB10: 183–204.
    [Google Scholar]
  41. Statistics Canada
    Statistics Canada 2016Linguistic Diversity and Multilingualism in Canadian Homes. AccessedOctober 2, 2020. www12.statcan.gc.ca/census-recensement/2016/as-sa/98-200-x/2016010/98-200-x2016010-eng.cfm
    [Google Scholar]
  42. Stibbarb, Richard
    1994 “The Use of Translation in Foreign Language Teaching.” Studies in Translation Theory and Practice2 (1): 9–18.
    [Google Scholar]
  43. Wilson, Jaclyn, and Maria González-Davies
    2016 “Tackling the Plurilingual Student/Monolingual Classroom Phenomenon.” TESOL Quarterly51 (1): 207–219. 10.1002/tesq.336
    https://doi.org/10.1002/tesq.336 [Google Scholar]
  44. Woll, Nina
    2020 “Towards Crosslinguistic Pedagogy: Demystifying Pre-service Teachers’ Beliefs Regarding the Target-language-only Rule.” System92. doi:  10.1016/j.system.2020.102275
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.system.2020.102275 [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journals/10.1075/ttmc.00064.gal
Loading
/content/journals/10.1075/ttmc.00064.gal
Loading

Data & Media loading...

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was successful
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error