Volume 7, Issue 3
  • ISSN 2352-1805
  • E-ISSN: 2352-1813
Buy:$35.00 + Taxes



The translation policy model by González Núñez (2013, 475) comprises three elements, namely “translation management”, “translation practices”, and “translation beliefs”. While the first two elements of this model are straightforward and easy to study in top-down approaches, translation beliefs can relate both to policymakers and policy receivers. However, the distinction has not been clearly made in this model and the element of translation beliefs has been chiefly treated in the literature as though it comes from the top levels of policymaking, hence overlooking the bottom-up aspects of it (see González Núñez 20142016Li et al. 2017). In order to improve this model, the present paper draws on the audience reception theory (Hall 1973), and shows that the current translation policy model requires a fourth element that I would call ‘translation reception’. The paper draws on the findings of a reception-oriented case study on translation policies in provincial broadcasting in Iran. This study argues that a more inclusive model of translation policy should not only include the authority-level elements of translation management, translation practices, and translation beliefs, but also the element of translation reception on the part of policy receivers. This way, I hope, the end users’ involvement in and contribution to the translation policy network will not be overlooked in subsequent research.


Article metrics loading...

Loading full text...

Full text loading...


  1. Baghbidi, Hassan Rezai
    2003 “The Zargari Language: An Endangered European Romani in Iran.” Romani Studies13 (2): 123–148. 10.3828/rs.2003.5
    https://doi.org/10.3828/rs.2003.5 [Google Scholar]
  2. Conway, Kyle
    2011Everyone Says No: Public Service Broadcasting and the Failure of Translation. Montreal: McGill-Queen’s University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  3. 2012 “Cultural Translation, Long-Form Journalism, and Readers’ Responses to the Muslim Veil.” Meta: Journal Des Traducteurs57 (4): 997–1012. 10.7202/1021229ar
    https://doi.org/10.7202/1021229ar [Google Scholar]
  4. Di Giovanni, Elena, and Yves Gambier
    2018Reception Studies and Audiovisual Translation. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. 10.1075/btl.141
    https://doi.org/10.1075/btl.141 [Google Scholar]
  5. Even-Zohar, Basmat
    1992 “Translation Policy in Hebrew Children’s Literature: The Case of Astrid Lindgren.” Poetics Today13 (1): 231–245. 10.2307/1772800
    https://doi.org/10.2307/1772800 [Google Scholar]
  6. González Núñez, Gabriel
    2013 “Translating for Linguistic Minorities in Northern Ireland: A Look at Translation Policy in the Judiciary, Healthcare and Local Government.” Current Issues in Language Planning14:3–4: 474–489. 10.1080/14664208.2013.827036
    https://doi.org/10.1080/14664208.2013.827036 [Google Scholar]
  7. 2014 Translating for Linguistic Minorities: Translation Policy in the United Kingdom. PhD thesis, Leuven, KU Leuven, Faculty of Arts.
    [Google Scholar]
  8. 2016Translating in Linguistically Diverse Societies: Translation Policy in the United Kingdom. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. 10.1075/btl.125
    https://doi.org/10.1075/btl.125 [Google Scholar]
  9. Haddadian Moghaddam, Esmaeil, and Reine Meylaerts
    2014 “Translation Policy in the Media: A Study of Television Programs in the Province of Kurdistan.” Translation Spaces3: 71–98. 10.1075/ts.3.04had
    https://doi.org/10.1075/ts.3.04had [Google Scholar]
  10. 2015 “What about Translation? Beyond ‘Persianization’ as the Language Policy in Iran.” Iranian Studies48 (6): 851–870. 10.1080/00210862.2014.913437
    https://doi.org/10.1080/00210862.2014.913437 [Google Scholar]
  11. Hall, Stuart
    1973Encoding and Decoding in the Television Discourse. [Monograph]. AccessedApril 20, 2020. epapers.bham.ac.uk/2962/
    [Google Scholar]
  12. Holmes, James S.
    1988 “The Name and Nature of Translation Studies.” InTranslated!: Papers on Literary Translation and Translation Studies, ed. byJames S. Holmes. 66–80. Amsterdam: Rodopi. 10.1163/9789004486669
    https://doi.org/10.1163/9789004486669 [Google Scholar]
  13. Iran Shuts Down Newspaper Over Cartoon, The New York Times
    Iran Shuts Down Newspaper Over Cartoon, The New York Times. AccessedSeptember 20, 2020. https://www.nytimes.com/2006/05/24/world/middleeast/24iran.html
  14. Johnson, David Cassels
    2013Language Policy. London: Palgrave Macmillan. 10.1057/9781137316202
    https://doi.org/10.1057/9781137316202 [Google Scholar]
  15. Joseph, John Earl
    2004Language and Identity: National, Ethnic, Religious. New York: Palgrave Macmillan. 10.1057/9780230503427
    https://doi.org/10.1057/9780230503427 [Google Scholar]
  16. Kaplan, Robert B., and Richard B. Baldauf
    1997Language Planning From Practice to Theory. Clevedon (England): Multilingual Matters.
    [Google Scholar]
  17. Karim, Persis
    2015 “A Cartoonist’s Metamorphosis: An Interview with Mana Neyestani.” World Literature Today; Norman89 (2): 38–41. 10.7588/worllitetoda.89.2.0038
    https://doi.org/10.7588/worllitetoda.89.2.0038 [Google Scholar]
  18. LI, Wenjie
    2017 “The Complexity of Indirect Translation: Reflections on the Chinese Translation and Reception of H. C. Andersen’s Tales.” Orbis Litterarum72 (3): 181–208. 10.1111/oli.12148
    https://doi.org/10.1111/oli.12148 [Google Scholar]
  19. Li, Shuang, Duoxiu Qian, and Reine Meylaerts
    2017 “China’s Minority Language Translation Policies (1949–Present).” Perspectives: Studies in Translatology25 (4): 540–555. 10.1080/0907676X.2016.1241286
    https://doi.org/10.1080/0907676X.2016.1241286 [Google Scholar]
  20. Mcauley, Thomas E.
    2015 “Audience Attitude and Translation Reception: The Case of Genji Monogatari.” Babel61 (2): 219–241. 10.1075/babel.61.2.04mac
    https://doi.org/10.1075/babel.61.2.04mac [Google Scholar]
  21. Meylaerts, Reine
    2009 “‘And for the Flemish, the Same Thing’: What Translation Policy for which Linguistic Minorities?” Meta: Journal Des Traducteurs54 (1): 7–21. 10.7202/029790ar
    https://doi.org/10.7202/029790ar [Google Scholar]
  22. 2011aTranslation Policy. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. 10.1075/hts.2.tra10
    https://doi.org/10.1075/hts.2.tra10 [Google Scholar]
  23. 2011b “Translational Justice in a Multilingual World. An Overview of Translational Regimes.” Meta: Journal Des Traducteurs56 (4): 743–757. 10.7202/1011250ar
    https://doi.org/10.7202/1011250ar [Google Scholar]
  24. 2013 “Multilingualism as a Challenge for Translation Studies.” InThe Routledge Handbook of Translation Studies, ed. byCarmen Millán-Varela, and Francesca Bartrina. 519–533. London: Routledge.
    [Google Scholar]
  25. 2018 “Language and Translation Policies in Context of Urban Super-Diversity.” InLanguage Policy and Linguistic Justice: Economic, Philosophical and Sociolinguistic Approaches, ed. byMichele Gazzola, Bengt-Arne Wickström, and Torsten Templin. 455–475. Berlin: Springer. 10.1007/978‑3‑319‑75263‑1_15
    https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-75263-1_15 [Google Scholar]
  26. Nouws, Bieke, and Reine Meylaerts
    2018 “La Necessite Des Traductions. Translating Legislation in a Young Parliamentary Regime. The Case of Belgium (1830–1895). (Author Abstract).” International Journal of the Sociology of Language (251): 111–130. 10.1515/ijsl‑2018‑0006
    https://doi.org/10.1515/ijsl-2018-0006 [Google Scholar]
  27. Podkalicka, Aneta Monika
    2007 Lost in Translation? Language Policy, Media and Community in the EU and Australia: Some Lessons from the SBS. PhD thesis, Queensland University of Technology.
    [Google Scholar]
  28. Sheyholislami, Jaffer
    2012 “Kurdish in Iran: A Case of Restricted and Controlled Tolerance.” International Journal of the Sociology of Language217: 19–47. 10.1515/ijsl‑2012‑0048
    https://doi.org/10.1515/ijsl-2012-0048 [Google Scholar]
  29. Spolsky, Bernard
    2004Language Policy. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  30. 2009Language Management. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 10.1017/CBO9780511626470
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511626470 [Google Scholar]
  31. 2012 “What Is Language Policy?” InThe Cambridge Handbook of Language Policy, ed. byBernard Spolsky. 3–15. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 10.1017/CBO9780511979026.003
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511979026.003 [Google Scholar]
  32. Steemers, Vivan
    2012 “The Effect of Translating “Big Words”: Anglophone Translation and Reception of Ahmadou Kourouma’s Novel Allah n’est Pas Oblige.” Research in African Literatures43 (3): 36–53. 10.2979/reseafrilite.43.3.36
    https://doi.org/10.2979/reseafrilite.43.3.36 [Google Scholar]
  33. Toury, Gideon
    1995Descriptive Translation Studies and beyond. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. 10.1075/btl.4
    https://doi.org/10.1075/btl.4 [Google Scholar]
  34. Van Parijs, Philippe
    2011Linguistic Justice for Europe and for the World. Oxford: Oxford University Press. 10.1093/acprof:osobl/9780199208876.001.0001
    https://doi.org/10.1093/acprof:osobl/9780199208876.001.0001 [Google Scholar]
  35. Xu, Minhui, and Jing Yu
    2019 “Sociological Formation and Reception of Translation: The Case of Kinkley’s Translation of Biancheng.” Translation and Interpreting Studies14 (3): 333–350. 10.1075/tis.19039.xu
    https://doi.org/10.1075/tis.19039.xu [Google Scholar]

Data & Media loading...

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was successful
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error