Volume 8, Issue 1
  • ISSN 2352-1805
  • E-ISSN: 2352-1813
Buy:$35.00 + Taxes



Since the turn of the century there has been an increase in the use of translanguaging in multilingual learning contexts. Many researchers have shown how translanguaging enhances multilingual students’ ability to understand academic content. This experimental study provides empirical evidence that translanguaging can enhance reading comprehension. An experimental group and a control group were used to establish whether there was a significant difference between the performances of the two groups after reading an academic text. Using the t-test analysis, the results show a significant difference in the performance of the control group and the experimental group. These findings prompt us to conclude that translanguaging is an effective strategy that enhances reading comprehension.


Article metrics loading...

Loading full text...

Full text loading...


  1. Adler, Max.K.
    1977Collective and Individual Bilingualism: A Sociolinguist Study. Hamburg: Buske
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Alderson, Charles J.
    2000Assessing Reading. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 10.1017/CBO9780511732935
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511732935 [Google Scholar]
  3. Baker, Collins
    2007A Parents’ and Teachers’ Guide to Bilingualism. Toronto: Multilingual Matters.
    [Google Scholar]
  4. 2011Foundations of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism 5th edn. Clevedon, UK: Multilingual Matters.
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Boakye, Naomi , and Vimbai Mbirimi-Hungwe
    2015 “Multilingual Pedagogy in Higher Education: Lecturers’ Perceptions of Translanguaging in Promoting Academic Literacy.” InNew Directions in Language and Literacy Education for Multilingual Classrooms, ed. by Leketi Makalela , 153–156. Cape Town: CASAS.
    [Google Scholar]
  6. Boakye, Naomi , and Magdaline Mai
    2016 “A Needs Analysis for a Discipline-Specific Reading Intervention.” English Language Teaching9(3): 235–247. 10.5539/elt.v9n3p235
    https://doi.org/10.5539/elt.v9n3p235 [Google Scholar]
  7. Canagarajah, Suresh
    2011 “Translanguaging in the Classroom: Emerging Issues for Research and Pedagogy.” Applied Linguistics Review2: 1–27. 10.1515/9783110239331.1
    https://doi.org/10.1515/9783110239331.1 [Google Scholar]
  8. Carroll, Kevin S. , and Astrid N. Samboline Morales
    2016 “Using University Students’ L1 as a Resource: Translanguaging in a Puerto Rican ESL Classroom.” Bilingual Research Journal39(3): 248–268. 10.1080/15235882.2016.1240114
    https://doi.org/10.1080/15235882.2016.1240114 [Google Scholar]
  9. Chall, Jean S. , and Edgar Dale
    1995Readability Revisited: The New Dale-Chall Readability Formula. Cambridge: Brookline Books.
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Essien, Anthony A.
    2010 “What Teacher Educators Consider as Best Practices in Preparing Pre-Service Teachers for Teaching Mathematics in Multilingual Practices.” Perspectives in Education28(4): 32–42.
    [Google Scholar]
  11. Ferris, Dana R. , and John S. Hedgecock
    2005Teaching ESL Composition: Purpose, Process and Practice. Mahwah, U.S.A: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
    [Google Scholar]
  12. García, Ofelia
    2009 “Education, Multilingualism and Translanguaging in the 21st Century.” InMultilingual Education for Social Justice: Globalising the Local, ed. by Ajit K. Mohanty , Minati Panda , Robert Phillipson , and Tove Skutnabb-Kangas , 140–157. New Dehli: Orien Black Swan. 10.21832/9781847691910‑011
    https://doi.org/10.21832/9781847691910-011 [Google Scholar]
  13. García, Ofelia , and Camila Leiva
    2014 “Theorizing and Enacting Translanguaging for Social Justice.” InHeteroglossia as Practice and Pedagogy, ed. by Adrian Blackledge , and Angela Creese , 199–216. New York: Springer. 10.1007/978‑94‑007‑7856‑6_11
    https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-007-7856-6_11 [Google Scholar]
  14. García, Ofelia , and Li Wei
    2014Translanguaging Language, Bilingualism and Education. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.
    [Google Scholar]
  15. García, Ofelia , and Tatyana Kleyn
    2016 “Translanguaging Theory and Project.” InTranslanguaging with Multilingual Students: Learning from Classroom Moments, ed. by Ofelia García , and Tatyana Kleyn , 9–34. New York: Routledge. 10.4324/9781315695242
    https://doi.org/10.4324/9781315695242 [Google Scholar]
  16. Guthrie, John T.
    2003 “Concept-Oriented Reading Instruction: Practices of Teaching Reading for Understanding.” InReading for Understanding: Implications of RAND Report for Education, ed. by Catherine Snow , 115–140. New York: Guilford.
    [Google Scholar]
  17. Heugh, Kathleen
    2014 “Language Contact and Languaging.” InLanguage, Society and Communication: An Introduction, ed. by Zannie Bock , and Gift Mheta , 116–134. Pretoria: Van Schaik.
    [Google Scholar]
  18. Hibbert, Liessel , and Christa van der Walt
    2014Multilingual Universities in South Africa. Reflecting Society in Higher Education. Bristol: Multilingual Matters. 10.21832/9781783091669
    https://doi.org/10.21832/9781783091669 [Google Scholar]
  19. Hopewell, Susan
    2011 “Leveraging Bilingualism to Accelerate English Reading Comprehension.” International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism14(5): 603–620. 10.1080/13670050.2011.564274
    https://doi.org/10.1080/13670050.2011.564274 [Google Scholar]
  20. Hurst, Ellen , and Msakha Mona
    2017 “Translanguaging as a Socially Just Pedagogy.” Education as Change21(2): 126–14. 10.17159/1947‑9417/2017/2015
    https://doi.org/10.17159/1947-9417/2017/2015 [Google Scholar]
  21. Klingner, Jannette K. , and Sharon Vaughn
    2000 “The Helping Behaviours of Fifth Graders while Using Collaborative Strategic Reading During ESL Content Classes.” TESOL Quarterly34: 69–98. 10.2307/3588097
    https://doi.org/10.2307/3588097 [Google Scholar]
  22. Lestik, Mike , and Scott Plous
    2012 “Jigsaw Classroom.” jigsaw.org (AccessedOctober 24, 2018).
    [Google Scholar]
  23. Lewis, Gwyn , Byrone Jones , and Colin Baker
    2012 “Translanguaging: Developing its Conceptualisation and Contextualization.” Educational Research and Evaluation: An International Journal on Theory and Practice18(7): 655–670. 10.1080/13803611.2012.718490
    https://doi.org/10.1080/13803611.2012.718490 [Google Scholar]
  24. Li, Wei
    2016 “New Chinglish and the Post- Multilingualism Challenge: Translanguaging ELF in China.” JELF5(1): 1–25. 10.1515/jelf‑2016‑0001
    https://doi.org/10.1515/jelf-2016-0001 [Google Scholar]
  25. Madiba, Mbulungeni
    2014 “Promoting Concept Literacy through Multilingual Glossaries: Translanguaging Approach.” InMultilingual Universities in South Africa: Reflecting Society in Higher Education, ed. by Lisiel Hibbert , and Christa van Der Walt , 68–87. Bristol: Multilingual Matters. 10.21832/9781783091669‑007
    https://doi.org/10.21832/9781783091669-007 [Google Scholar]
  26. Makalela, Leketi
    2014 “Teaching Indegenous African Languages to Speakers of Other Languages: The Effects of Translanguaging for Multilingual Development.” In Multilingual Universities in South Africa, ed. by Liesel Hibbert , and Christa van Der Walt , 88–104. Bristol: Multilingual Matters. 10.21832/9781783091669‑008
    https://doi.org/10.21832/9781783091669-008 [Google Scholar]
  27. 2015 “Moving out of Linguistic Boxes: The Effects of Translanguaging Strategies for Multilingual Classrooms.” Language and Education29(3): 200–217. 10.1080/09500782.2014.994524
    https://doi.org/10.1080/09500782.2014.994524 [Google Scholar]
  28. 2016 “Translanguaging Practices in a South African Institution of Higher Learning: A Case of Ubuntu Multilingual Return.” InTranslanguaging in Higher Education, ed. by Catherine M. Mazak , and Kevin S. Carroll , 65–78. Bristol: Multilingual Matters. 10.21832/9781783096657‑004
    https://doi.org/10.21832/9781783096657-004 [Google Scholar]
  29. Makoni, Sinfree , and Alistair Pennycook
    2012 “Disinventing Multilingualism from Monological Multilingualism to Multilingual Francas.” InThe Routledge Handbook of Multilingualism, ed. by Marylin Martin-Jones , Adrian Blackledge , and Angela Creese , 439–453. New York: Routledge.
    [Google Scholar]
  30. May, Stephen
    2017 “Language, Imperialism and the Modern Nation-State System: Implications for Language Rights.” InThe Oxford Handbook of Language and Society, ed. by Ofelia García , Nelson Flores , and Massimiliano Spotti , 35–54. New York: Oxford University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  31. Mbirimi-Hungwe, Vimbai
    2016 “Translanguaging as a Strategy for Group Work: Summary Writing as a Measure for Reading Comprehension Among University Students.” Southern African and Linguistics Studies34(3): 241–249. 10.2989/16073614.2016.1250352
    https://doi.org/10.2989/16073614.2016.1250352 [Google Scholar]
  32. 2019 “Using a Translanguaging Approach to Teach Paraphrasing to Enhance Reading Comprehension Among First Year Students,” Reading and Writing10(1): 1–9.
    [Google Scholar]
  33. 2020a “An Insight into South African Multilingual Students’ Perceptions about Using Translanguaging During Group Discussion.” Applied Linguistics42(2): 256–268
    [Google Scholar]
  34. 2020b “Translanguaging Pedagogy to Understand Medical Concepts: Positioning the Lecturer in a Multilingual University Classroom.” InEmerging Perspectives on Translanguaging in Multilingual University Classrooms, ed. by Vimbai Mbirimi-Hungwe , Taurai Hungwe , and Solly Seleetse , 56–73. Newcastle upon Tyne: Cambridge Scholars Publishing.
    [Google Scholar]
  35. Mgijima, Vukile D. , and Leketi Makalela
    2016 “The Effects of Translanguaging on the Biliterate Inferencing Strategies of Fourth-Grade Learners.” Perspectives in Education34(3): 86–93. 10.18820/2519593X/pie.v34i3.7
    https://doi.org/10.18820/2519593X/pie.v34i3.7 [Google Scholar]
  36. Ngcobo, Sibusiso
    2014 “Dual Language Instruction: Its Impact on Attitude Towards the Role of African Languages in Education.” InMultilingual Universities in South Africa: Reflecting Society in Higher Education, ed. by Liesel Hibbert , and Christa Van Der Walt , 123–144. Toronto: Multilingual Matters. 10.21832/9781783091669‑010
    https://doi.org/10.21832/9781783091669-010 [Google Scholar]
  37. Ohta, Amy S.
    2001 “Rethinking Interaction in SLA: Developmentally Appropriate Assistance in the Zone of Proximal Development and the Acquisition of L2 Grammar.” InSociocultural Theory and Second Language Learning, ed. by James P. Lantolf , 51–80. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  38. Olivier, Jako
    2013 “The Accommodation of Multilingualism Through Blended Learning in Two Information Technology Classes.” Perspectives in Education31(4): 43–57.
    [Google Scholar]
  39. Otheguy, Ricardo , Ofelia García , and Wallis Reid
    2015 “Clarifying Translanguaging and Deconstructing Named Languages: A Perspective from Linguistics.” Applied Linguistics Review6(3): 281–307. 10.1515/applirev‑2015‑0014
    https://doi.org/10.1515/applirev-2015-0014 [Google Scholar]
  40. Parkinson, Jean , Leonora Jackson , Tamlin Kirkwood , and Vasanthie Padayachee
    2007 “A Scaffolded Reading and Writing Course for Foundation Level Science Students.” English for Specific Purposes26(4): 443–461. 10.1016/j.esp.2007.01.001
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.esp.2007.01.001 [Google Scholar]
  41. Saunders, Mark , Phillip Lewis , and Adrian Thornhill
    2012Research Methods for Business Students. Harlow: Pearson Education.
    [Google Scholar]
  42. Scott, Virginal , and Jose de la Fuente
    2008 “What’s the Problem? L2 Learner’s Use of the L1 During Consciousness-Raising, Form Focused Tasks.” Modern Language Journal92: 100–113. 10.1111/j.1540‑4781.2008.00689.x
    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1540-4781.2008.00689.x [Google Scholar]
  43. Siegle, David
    2011 “Educational Research Basics” www.research.basics.education.uconn.edu (AccessedMay 5, 2019).
  44. Spack, Ruth
    1988 “Initiating ESL Students into the Academic Discourse Community. How Far Should we Go?” TESOL Quarterly22(1): 30–52. 10.2307/3587060
    https://doi.org/10.2307/3587060 [Google Scholar]
  45. Stetsenko, Anna , and Igor Arievitch
    1997 “Constructing and Deconstructing the Self: Comparing Post-Vygotskian and Discourse-Based Versions of Social Constructivism.” Mind, Culture, and Activity4:160–173. 10.1207/s15327884mca0403_3
    https://doi.org/10.1207/s15327884mca0403_3 [Google Scholar]
  46. Swain, Merrill , and Sharon Lapkin
    1998 “Interaction and Second Language Learning: Two Adolescent French Immersion Students Working Together.” Modern Language Journal82: 320–337. 10.1111/j.1540‑4781.1998.tb01209.x
    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1540-4781.1998.tb01209.x [Google Scholar]
  47. 2002 “Talking it through: Two French Immersion Leaners’ Response to Reformulation.” International Journal of Educational Research37: 285–304. 10.1016/S0883‑0355(03)00006‑5
    https://doi.org/10.1016/S0883-0355(03)00006-5 [Google Scholar]
  48. Swain, Merrill , Lindsay Brooks , and Augustino Tocalli-Beller
    2002 “Peer-Peer Dialogue as a Means of Second Language Learning.” Annual Review of Applied Linguistics22: 171–185. 10.1017/S0267190502000090
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S0267190502000090 [Google Scholar]
  49. Thamaga-Chitja, John M. , and Tim Mbatha
    2012 “Enablers and Barriers to Multilingualism in South African University classrooms.” Southern African Linguistics and Applied Language Studies30(3): 339–346. 10.2989/16073614.2012.739412
    https://doi.org/10.2989/16073614.2012.739412 [Google Scholar]
  50. van der Walt, Christa , and Jacqui Dornbrack
    2011 “Academic Biliteracy in South African Higher Education: Strategies and Practices of Successful Students.” Language, Culture and Curriculum24(1): 89–104. 10.1080/07908318.2011.554985
    https://doi.org/10.1080/07908318.2011.554985 [Google Scholar]
  51. Vygotsky, Lev S.
    1978Mind In Society: The Development of Higher Psychological Processes. London: Harvard University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  52. Williams, Cen
    1996 “Secondary Education: Teaching in the Bilingual Situation.” InThe Language Policy: Taking Stock, ed. by Cen Williams , Gwyn Lewis , and Colin Baker , 39–78. Llangefni: CAI.
    [Google Scholar]
  53. Yu, Gioxing
    2007 “Students’ Voices in the Evaluation of their Written Summaries: Empowerment and Democracy for Test Takers?” Language Testing24(4): 539–572. 10.1177/0265532207080780
    https://doi.org/10.1177/0265532207080780 [Google Scholar]

Data & Media loading...

  • Article Type: Research Article
Keyword(s): multilingualism; pedagogy; reading comprehension; translanguaging
This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was successful
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error