1887
Volume 9, Issue 3
  • ISSN 2352-1805
  • E-ISSN: 2352-1813
USD
Buy:$35.00 + Taxes

Abstract

Abstract

In recent years, numerous variations of subtitling approaches, which have been variously defined as enriched, creative, dynamic, emotive (Neves 2018), but also ‘creactive’ (Sala Robert 2016), have been put forward by scholars in the attempt to diversify and expand the audiences’ access to audiovisual products through subtitles. Also, there has been a significant growth in international film festivals which, alongside long-established festivals, have contributed to providing audiences with a cultural window on the world. In Italy, for example, there are hundreds of film festivals, which vary in terms of size, subject-matter, and genre.

Against the backdrop of recent research on audience(s) attending film festivals (Di Giovanni 2020), accessibility studies (Greco 2018), and preferences and familiarity with various types of subtitles for Deaf and Hard-of-Hearing people (Romero-Fresco 2015), this paper aims to introduce the notion of inclusive subtitling and to propose guidelines and applications within the context of accessible film festivals and cultural events. The corpus for this empirical study consists of the short films competing in the eleventh and twelfth editions of the , inclusively subtitled. Results will prove that ‘inclusive subtitles’ have the potential to cater to more varied needs, embracing settings such as film festivals, theatres, museums, galleries, and similar cultural contexts. In line with Greco’s (2018) universalist approach, and in contrast with the recent introduction of the term by Martínez-Lorenzo (2020) applied to minoritised languages, inclusive subtitles is an expression that refers to intralingual or interlingual subtitles, open or closed (with the aid of external tools, such as an app) and applied specifically to film festivals.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.1075/ttmc.00117.uzz
2023-11-09
2024-07-25
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

References

  1. BBC
    BBC 2022 “Subtitle Guidelines.” AccessedJuly 29, 2022. https://www.bbc.co.uk/accessibility/forproducts/guides/subtitles/
  2. Díaz Cintas, Jorge, and Aline Remael
    2014Audiovisual Translation: Subtitling. London: Routledge. 10.4324/9781315759678
    https://doi.org/10.4324/9781315759678 [Google Scholar]
  3. 2021Subtitling: Concepts and Practices. London: Routledge.
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Di Giovanni, Elena
    2020La traduzione audiovisiva e i suoi pubblici. Napoli: Paolo Goffredo Editore.
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Ente Nazionale Sordi ETS-APS
    Ente Nazionale Sordi ETS-APS. AccessedMarch 30, 2022. https://www.ens.it
  6. Greco, Gian Maria
    2018 “The Nature of Accessibility Studies.” Journal of Audiovisual Translation1 (1): 205–232. 10.47476/jat.v1i1.51
    https://doi.org/10.47476/jat.v1i1.51 [Google Scholar]
  7. Linguistic Society of America
    Linguistic Society of America 2016 “Guidelines for Inclusive Language.” AccessedJuly 29, 2022. https://www.linguisticsociety.org/sites/default/files/Inclusive_Lg_Guidelines.pdf
  8. Martínez-Lorenzo, Mercedes
    2020 “Subtitling for Social and Language Minorities: Subtitling of Oral Errors and Dialectal Features in the Case of Minoritised Languages.” Journal of Audiovisual Translation3 (2): 310–327. 10.47476/jat.v3i2.2020.123
    https://doi.org/10.47476/jat.v3i2.2020.123 [Google Scholar]
  9. Merriam-Webster
    Merriam-Webster. (n.d.). “Interrobang.” InMerriam-Webster.com dictionary. AccessedJuly 29, 2022. https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/interrobang#:~:text=interrobang%20%E2%80%A2%20%5Cin%2DTAIR%2D,’t%20feel%20very%20hospitable.%20%22
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Miller, Clive
    2007 “Access Symbols for Use with Video Content and Information and Communications Technology Devices.” InMedia for all. Subtitling for the Deaf, Audio Description and Sign Language, ed. byJorge Díaz Cintas, Pilar Orero, and Aline Remael, 53–70. Amsterdam: Rodopi. 10.1163/9789401209564_005
    https://doi.org/10.1163/9789401209564_005 [Google Scholar]
  11. Netflix
    Netflix. (n.d.). English Timed Text Style Guide. AccessedAugust 30, 2022. https://partnerhelp.netflixstudios.com/hc/en-us/articles/217350977-English-Timed-Text-Style-Guide
    [Google Scholar]
  12. Neves, Joselia
    2018 “Subtitling for Deaf and Hard of Hearing Audiences: Moving forward.” InThe Routledge Handbook of Audiovisual Translation, ed. byLuis Pérez-González, 82–95. London: Routledge. 10.4324/9781315717166‑6
    https://doi.org/10.4324/9781315717166-6 [Google Scholar]
  13. RAI
    RAI 2021Norme e convenzioni editoriali essenziali. Sottotitoli televisivi per spettatori sordi e con difficoltà uditive a cura di RAI. AccessedJuly 29, 2022. https://www.rai.it/dl/doc/2020/10/19/1603121663902_PREREGISTR_22_feb_2016_-_Norme_e__Convenzioni_essenziali_per_la_composiz...%20-%20Copia.pdf
    [Google Scholar]
  14. Romero-Fresco, P.
    (ed.) 2015The Reception of Subtitles for the Deaf and Hard of Hearing in Europe. Bern: Peter Lang.
    [Google Scholar]
  15. Romero-Fresco, Pablo, and Carlo Eugeni
    2020 “Live Subtitling through Respeaking.” InThe Palgrave Handbook of Audiovisual Translation and Media Accessibility, ed. byŁukasz Bogucki, and Mikołaj Deckert, 269–296. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan. 10.1007/978‑3‑030‑42105‑2_14
    https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-42105-2_14 [Google Scholar]
  16. Sala Robert, Èlia
    2016 “Creactive Subtitles. Subtitling for all.” PhD diss., Universitat Pompeu Fabra. UPF Digital Repository. AccessedMay 30, 2022. https://repositori.upf.edu/handle/10230/27737
  17. Sicilia Queer 2021
    Sicilia Queer 2021. AccessedMay 30, 2022. https://www.mymovies.it/ondemand/sicilia-queer/
  18. Sicilia Queer
  19. Spoletti, Federico
    . “Interview.” Journal of Specialised Translation61 2006https://www.jostrans.org/issue06/int_spoletti.php
    [Google Scholar]
  20. SudTitles
    SudTitles. (n.d.). AccessedJanuary 15, 2023. https://ww.sudtitles.com
  21. Szarkowska, Agnieszka
    2013 “Towards Interlingual Subtitling for the Deaf and the Hard of Hearing.” Perspectives21 (1): 68–81. 10.1080/0907676X.2012.722650
    https://doi.org/10.1080/0907676X.2012.722650 [Google Scholar]
  22. 2020 “Subtitling for the Deaf and the Hard of Hearing.” InThe Palgrave Handbook of Audiovisual Translation and Media Accessibility, ed. byŁukasz Bogucki, and Mikołaj Deckert, 249–268. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan. 10.1007/978‑3‑030‑42105‑2_13
    https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-42105-2_13 [Google Scholar]
  23. Uzzo, Gabriele
    2020 “Accessible Film Festivals: A Pilot Study.” BRIDGE, Trends and Traditions in Translation and Interpreting Studies, 1 (2): 68–85. https://www.bridge.ff.ukf.sk/index.php/bridge/article/view/12
    [Google Scholar]
  24. 2023 Inclusive Subtitles at Film Festivals. PhD diss. University of Palermo.
  25. Variety
    Variety. “Bong Joon Ho: ‘Once You Overcome the One Inch Tall Barrier of Subtitles, You Will Be Introduced to So Many More Amazing Films.’” Twitter. AccessedJanuary 6, 2020. https://twitter.com/variety/status/1213999361341804544?s=46&t=skx-zeIHf8Pcn-3IDF4ukw
    [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journals/10.1075/ttmc.00117.uzz
Loading
/content/journals/10.1075/ttmc.00117.uzz
Loading

Data & Media loading...

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was successful
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error