Volume 10, Issue 2
  • ISSN 2352-1805
  • E-ISSN: 2352-1813
Buy:$35.00 + Taxes



The theory of translingualism has been well constructed in sociolinguistics, yet it has not been applied fully to the study of literary translation and translator identity. This paper attempts to analyze the English version of Mayra Montero’s Spanish novel (1997) within the framework of translingualism. Through the analysis of code-meshing and code-switching events, this article focuses on the identity construction of Edith Grossman, the English translator of the novel . The occurrence of translingualism is attributed to the complex dynamics of ethnic identity. Through co-participating in the construction process of Montero’s identity in different scenarios, namely resistance, transformation, and inclusiveness, translingualism helps to solve problems of translation methods on a micro scale, translator identity on a meso scale, and the approach of native culture ‘going global’ on a macro scale.


Article metrics loading...

Loading full text...

Full text loading...


  1. Alcocer, Rudyard J.
    2005Narrative Mutations: Discourses of Heredity and Caribbean Literature. London: Routledge. 10.4324/9780203503522
    https://doi.org/10.4324/9780203503522 [Google Scholar]
  2. Alvarez, Sara P., Suresh Canagarajah, Eunjeong Lee, Jerry Won Lee, and Shakil Rabbi
    2017 “Translingual Practice, Ethnic Identities, and Voice in Writing.” InCrossing Divides: Exploring Translingual Writing Pedagogies and Programs, ed. byBruce Horner, and Laura Tetreault, 31–47. Boulder, CO: Utah State University Press. 10.7330/9781607326205.c002
    https://doi.org/10.7330/9781607326205.c002 [Google Scholar]
  3. Anzaldúa, Gloria
    2003 “How to Tame a Wild Tongue.” InSwitching Languages: Translingual Writers Reflect on Their Craft, ed. bySteven G. Kellman, 45–58. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Baca, Damián
    2009 “Rethinking Composition, Five Hundred Years Later.” Journal of Advanced Composition29 (1): 229–242.
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Bach, Caleb
    2004 “At the Service of Language.” Américas56 (6): 24–29.
    [Google Scholar]
  6. Baynham, Mike, and Tong King Lee
    2019Translation and Translanguaging. New York: Routledge. 10.4324/9781315158877
    https://doi.org/10.4324/9781315158877 [Google Scholar]
  7. Bhabha, Homi K.
    [1994] 1995The Location of Culture. London: Routledge.
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Bielsa, Esperança
    2019 “Cosmopolitanism and Translation.” InRoutledge International Handbook of Cosmopolitanism Studies, ed. byGerard Delanty (2nd ed.), 167–176. Oxon: Routledge.
    [Google Scholar]
  9. Bizzell, Patricia
    2017 “Who Owns English in South Korea?” InCrossing Divides: Exploring Translingual Writing Pedagogies and Programs, ed. byBruce Horner, and Laura Tetreault, 70–86. Boulder, CO: Utah State University Press. 10.7330/9781607326205.c004
    https://doi.org/10.7330/9781607326205.c004 [Google Scholar]
  10. Boling, Becky
    2006 “The Trope of Nature in Latin American Literature: Some Examples.” Studies in 20th & 21st Century Literature30 (2): 245–262. 10.4148/2334‑4415.1632
    https://doi.org/10.4148/2334-4415.1632 [Google Scholar]
  11. Bucholtz, Mary, and Kira Hall
    2005 “Identity and Interaction: A Sociocultural Linguistic Approach.” Discourse Studies7 (5): 585–614. 10.1177/1461445605054407
    https://doi.org/10.1177/1461445605054407 [Google Scholar]
  12. Canagarajah, A. Suresh
    2006 “The Place of World Englishes in Composition: Pluralization Continued.” College Composition and Communication57 (4): 586–619. 10.58680/ccc20065061
    https://doi.org/10.58680/ccc20065061 [Google Scholar]
  13. 2008 “Language Shift and the Family: Questions from the Sri Lankan Tamil Diaspora.” Journal of Sociolinguistics12 (2): 143–176. 10.1111/j.1467‑9841.2008.00361.x
    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9841.2008.00361.x [Google Scholar]
  14. Canagarajah, Suresh
    2011a “World Englishes as Code-meshing.” InCode-meshing as World English: Policy, Pedagogy, Performance, ed. byVershawn Ashanti Young, and Aja Y. Martinez, 273–281. Urbana, IL: National Council of Teachers of English.
    [Google Scholar]
  15. 2011b “Codemeshing in Academic Writing: Identifying Teachable Strategies of Translanguaging.” The Modern Language Journal, 951: 401–417. 10.1111/j.1540‑4781.2011.01207.x
    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1540-4781.2011.01207.x [Google Scholar]
  16. 2011c “Translanguaging in the Classroom: Emerging Issues for Research and Pedagogy.” InApplied Linguistics Review, ed. byLi Wei, vol.21, 1–27. Berlin: De Gruyter Mouton.
    [Google Scholar]
  17. 2012 “Styling One’s Own in the Sri Lankan Tamil Diaspora: Implications for Language and Ethnicity.” Journal of Language, Identity, and Education111: 124–135. 10.1080/15348458.2012.667309
    https://doi.org/10.1080/15348458.2012.667309 [Google Scholar]
  18. Canagarajah, A. Suresh.
    ed. 2013aLiteracy as Translingual Practice: Between Communities and Classrooms. London: Routledge. 10.4324/9780203120293
    https://doi.org/10.4324/9780203120293 [Google Scholar]
  19. Canagarajah, Suresh
    2013bTranslingual Practice: Global Englishes and Cosmopolitan Relations. Milton Park, UK: Routledge. 10.4324/9780203120293
    https://doi.org/10.4324/9780203120293 [Google Scholar]
  20. 2016Translingual Practices and Neoliberal Policies: Attitudes and Strategies of African Skilled Migrants in Anglophone Workplaces. Cham, Switzerland: Springer. eBook index.
    [Google Scholar]
  21. Cenoz, Jasone, and Durk Gorter
    2015Multilingual Education: Between Language Learning and Translanguaging. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. 10.1017/9781009024655
    https://doi.org/10.1017/9781009024655 [Google Scholar]
  22. Collins, Marsha S.
    2012 “Going Global: Cervantes’ Don Quixote Rides into the Future.” Expositions6 (2): 33–40.
    [Google Scholar]
  23. Coronel-Molina, Serafín Modesto
    1999 “Crossing Borders and Constructing Indigeneity: A Self-ethnography of Identity.” InIndigeneity Construction and re/Presentation, ed. byJames N. Brown, and Patricia M. Sant, 59–75. Commack, NY: Nova Science.
    [Google Scholar]
  24. Creese, Angela, and Adrian Blackledge
    2010 “Translanguaging in the Bilingual Classroom: A Pedagogy for Learning and Teaching?” Modern Language Journal, 94 (1): 103–115. 10.1111/j.1540‑4781.2009.00986.x
    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1540-4781.2009.00986.x [Google Scholar]
  25. Cronin, Michael
    2006Translation and Identity. New York: Routledge. 10.4324/9780203015698
    https://doi.org/10.4324/9780203015698 [Google Scholar]
  26. Dagnino, Ariana
    2015Transcultural Writers and Novels in the Age of Global Mobility. West Lafayette, IN: Purdue University Press. 10.2307/j.ctv15wxqk8
    https://doi.org/10.2307/j.ctv15wxqk8 [Google Scholar]
  27. Donahue, Christiane
    2013 “Negotiation, Translinguality, and Cross-Cultural Writing Research.” InLiteracy as Translingual Practice: Between Communities and Classrooms, ed. bySuresh Canagarajah, 149–161. New York: Routledge.
    [Google Scholar]
  28. Dorian, Nancy C.
    2006 “Minority and Endangered Languages.” InThe Handbook of Bilingualism, ed. byTej K. Bhatia, and William C. Ritchie, 437–459. Oxford: Blackwell. 10.1002/9780470756997.ch17
    https://doi.org/10.1002/9780470756997.ch17 [Google Scholar]
  29. Eesa, Maha Tahir
    2017 “Translation Identity: A Theoretical Perspective.” in printFourth International Academic Al-Ameed Conference21: 9–29. AccessedJune 12, 2023. www.researchgate.net/publication/339843294_Translation_Identity_A_Theoretical_Perspective
    [Google Scholar]
  30. Fuentes, Yvette
    2010 “The Three Origins: The Cuban Ajiaco and Chinese Cuban Voices in the Narratives of Mayra Montero and Daína Chaviano.” Anthurium: A Caribbean Studies Journal7 (1): 1–11. 10.33596/anth.139
    https://doi.org/10.33596/anth.139 [Google Scholar]
  31. García, Ofelia, and Wei Li
    2014Translanguage: Language, Bilingualism and Education. Basingstoke, UK: Palgrave Macmillan. 10.1057/9781137385765
    https://doi.org/10.1057/9781137385765 [Google Scholar]
  32. Gillman, Laura
    2013 “Narrative as a Resource for Feminist Practices of Socially Engaged Inquiry: Mayra Montero’s In the Palm of Darkness.” Hypatia28 (3): 646–662. 10.1111/j.1527‑2001.2012.01312.x
    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1527-2001.2012.01312.x [Google Scholar]
  33. Gonzales, Laura
    2015 “Multimodality, Translingualism, and Rhetorical Genre Studies.” Composition Forum31 (1): 1–20.
    [Google Scholar]
  34. Ha, Jin
    2003 “Interview with Ha Jin.” InSwitching Languages: Translingual Writers Reflect on Their Craft, ed. bySteven G. Kellman, 79–84. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  35. Hall, Stuart
    1996 “Introduction: Who Needs ‘Identity’?” InQuestions of Cultural Identity, ed. byStuart Hall, and Paul Du Gay, 41. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
    [Google Scholar]
  36. Heise, Ursula K.
    2011 “World Literature and the Environment.” InThe Routledge Companion to World Literature, ed. byTheo D’haen, David Damrosch, and Djelal Kadir, 404–412. London: Routledge.
    [Google Scholar]
  37. Horner, Bruce, Lu Min-Zhan, Jacqueline Jones Royster, and John Trimbur
    2011 “Language Difference in Writing: Toward a Translingual Approach.” College English73 (3): 303–321. 10.58680/ce201113403
    https://doi.org/10.58680/ce201113403 [Google Scholar]
  38. Horner, Bruce, Samantha NeCamp, and Christiane Donahue
    2011 “Toward a Multilingual Composition Scholarship: From English Only to a Translingual Norm.” College Composition and Communication63 (2): 269–300. 10.58680/ccc201118392
    https://doi.org/10.58680/ccc201118392 [Google Scholar]
  39. Horner, Bruce, and Laura Tetreault
    2017 “Introduction.” InCrossing Divides: Exploring Translingual Writing Pedagogies and Programs, ed. byBruce Horner, and Laura Tetreault, 3–16. Boulder, CO: Utah State University Press. 10.7330/9781607326205.c000
    https://doi.org/10.7330/9781607326205.c000 [Google Scholar]
  40. Horner, Bruce, and John Trimbur
    2002 “English Only and U.S. College Composition.” College Composition and Communication53 (4): 594–630. 10.2307/1512118
    https://doi.org/10.2307/1512118 [Google Scholar]
  41. Hua, Zhu, and Wei Li
    . “Translanguaging in Performance or Performance in Translanguaging.” Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development (2022): 1–14. 10.1080/01434632.2022.2066109
    https://doi.org/10.1080/01434632.2022.2066109 [Google Scholar]
  42. Jacobs, Donna
    2013 “Booklover – Admiring the Translator.” Against the Grain21 (3): 63–65.
    [Google Scholar]
  43. Jordan, Jay
    2015 “Material Translingual Ecologies.” College English77 (4): 364–382. 10.58680/ce201526923
    https://doi.org/10.58680/ce201526923 [Google Scholar]
  44. Kellman, Steven G., and Natasha Lvovich
    2015 “Literary Translingualism: Multilingual Identity and Creativity.” Special issue ofL2 Journal7 (1): 3–5.
    [Google Scholar]
  45. Khubchandani, Lachman M.
    1997Revisualizing Boundaries: A Plurilingual Ethos. New Delhi: Sage.
    [Google Scholar]
  46. Lee, Karen An-hwei
    2013Anglophone Literatures in the Asian Diaspora: Literary Transnationalism and Translingual Migrations. Amherst, NY: Cambria Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  47. Li, Wei
    2011 “Moment Analysis and Translanguaging Space: Discursive Construction of Identities by Multilingual Chinese Youth in Britain.” Journal of Pragmatics43 (5): 1222–1235. 10.1016/j.pragma.2010.07.035
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pragma.2010.07.035 [Google Scholar]
  48. 2018 “Translanguaging as a Practical Theory of Language.” Applied Linguistics39 (1): 9–30. 10.1093/applin/amx039
    https://doi.org/10.1093/applin/amx039 [Google Scholar]
  49. 2022 “Foreword: Translanguaging LPP.” Asian-Pacific Journal of Second and Foreign Language Education, 7 (1): 1–4.
    [Google Scholar]
  50. Lopez, Adriana
    2005 “Captain of the Translators.” Publishers Weekly252 (29): 43.
    [Google Scholar]
  51. Lu, Min-Zhan
    2004 “An Essay on the Work of Composition: Composing English against the Order of Fast Capitalism.” College Composition and Communication56 (1): 16–50. 10.2307/4140679
    https://doi.org/10.2307/4140679 [Google Scholar]
  52. Lu, Min-Zhan, and Bruce Horner
    2016 “Introduction: Translingual Work.” College English78 (3): 207–218. 10.58680/ce201627651
    https://doi.org/10.58680/ce201627651 [Google Scholar]
  53. Lyons, Scott Richard
    2009 “The Fine Art of Fencing: Nationalism, Hybridity, and the Search for a Native American Writing Pedagogy.” Journal of Advanced Composition29 (1): 77–105.
    [Google Scholar]
  54. Makoni, Sinfree
    2003 “From Misinvention to Disinvention of Language: Multilingualism and the South African Constitution.” InBlack Linguistics: Languages, Society and Politics in Africa and the Americas, ed. byArnetha F. Ball, Sinfree Makoni, Geneva Smitherman, Arthur K. Spears, 132–153. London: Routledge.
    [Google Scholar]
  55. Mangelsdorf, Kate
    2017 “Language Difference and Translingual Enactments.” InCrossing Divides: Exploring Translingual Writing Pedagogies and Programs, ed. byBruce Horner, and Laura Tetreault, 199–205. Boulder, CO: Utah State University Press. 10.7330/9781607326205.c012
    https://doi.org/10.7330/9781607326205.c012 [Google Scholar]
  56. Matsuda, Paul Kei
    2006 “The Myth of Linguistic Homogeneity in U.S. College Composition.” College English68 (6): 637–651. MLA International Bibliography. 10.58680/ce20065042
    https://doi.org/10.58680/ce20065042 [Google Scholar]
  57. 2013 “It’s the Wild West Out There.” InLiteracy as Translingual Practice: Between Communities and Classrooms, ed. byA. Suresh Canagarajah, 128–138. New York: Routledge.
    [Google Scholar]
  58. Menezes de Souza, Lynn Mario
    2002 “A Case among Cases, a World among Worlds: The Ecology of Writing among the Kashinawa in Brazil.” Journal of Language, Identity, and Education1 (4): 261–278. 10.1207/S15327701JLIE0104_2
    https://doi.org/10.1207/S15327701JLIE0104_2 [Google Scholar]
  59. Milu, Esther
    2013 “Translingual Practices in Kenyan Hiphop: Pedagogical Implications.” InLiteracy as Translingual Practice: Between Communities and Classrooms, ed. ByA. Suresh Canagarajah, 104–112. New York: Routledge.
    [Google Scholar]
  60. Montero, Mayra
    1995Tú, la oscuridad (Vol.2431). Barcelona: Tusquets Editores S.A.
    [Google Scholar]
  61. 1997In the Palm of Darkness. Translated byEdith Grossman. New York: HarperCollins.
    [Google Scholar]
  62. Morrison, Debbie-Ann
    2012 Ecowomanist Endeavors: Race, Gender, and Environmental Ethics in Contemporary Caribbean Women’s Literature. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Miami.
  63. Moura-Koçoğlu, Michaela
    2011Narrating Indigenous Modernities: Transcultural Dimensions in Contemporary Māori Literature. Amsterdam: Rodopi. 10.1163/9789401206976
    https://doi.org/10.1163/9789401206976 [Google Scholar]
  64. Munday, Jeremy
    1998a “The Caribbean Conquers the World? An Analysis of the Reception of García Márquez in Translation.” Bulletin of Hispanic Studies75 (1): 137–144. 10.1080/000749098760110684
    https://doi.org/10.1080/000749098760110684 [Google Scholar]
  65. 1998b “A Computer-Assisted Approach to the Analysis of Translation Shifts.” Meta: Translators’ Journal43 (4): 542–556. 10.7202/003680ar
    https://doi.org/10.7202/003680ar [Google Scholar]
  66. 1998c “Problems of Applying Thematic Analysis to Translation between Spanish and English.” Cadernos de tradução1 (3): 183–213.
    [Google Scholar]
  67. Nilep, Chad
    2006 “‘Code Switching’ in Sociocultural Linguistics.” Colorado Research in Linguistics191: 1–22. https://philpapers.org/archive/NILCSI.pdf
    [Google Scholar]
  68. Paravisini-Gebert, Lizabeth
    2005 “‘He of the Trees’: Nature, Environment, and Creole Religiosities in Caribbean Literature.” InCaribbean Literature and the Environment: Between Nature and Culture, ed. byElizabeth M. Deloughrey, Renée K. Gosson, and George B. Handley, 182–196. Charlottesville: University of Virginia Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  69. Pennycook, Alastair
    2010Language as a Local Practice. London: Routledge. 10.4324/9780203846223
    https://doi.org/10.4324/9780203846223 [Google Scholar]
  70. Rampton, Ben
    2008Language in Late Modernity: Interaction in an Urban School. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  71. Rivera, Ángel A.
    2001 “Silence, Voodoo, and Haiti in Mayra Montero’s In the Palm of Darkness.” Ciberletras: Revista de crítica literaria y de cultura41: 1523–1720.
    [Google Scholar]
  72. Rubdy, Rani, and Mario Saraceni
    2006English in the World: Global Rules, Global Roles. London: Continuum.
    [Google Scholar]
  73. Sato, Eriko
    2022Translanguaging in Translation: Invisible Contributions that Shape Our Language and Society. Clevedon, UK: Multilingual Matters.
    [Google Scholar]
  74. Silva, Tony, Ilona Leki, and Joan Carson
    1997 “Broadening the Perspective of Mainstream Composition Studies: Some Thoughts from the Disciplinary Margins.” Written Communication14 (3): 398–428. 10.1177/0741088397014003004
    https://doi.org/10.1177/0741088397014003004 [Google Scholar]
  75. Stavans, Ilan
    2003 “Autobiographical Essay.” InSwitching Languages: Translingual Writers Reflect on Their Craft, ed. bySteven G. Kellman, 111–127. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  76. Steinitz, Tamar
    2013Translingual Identities: Language and the Self in Stefan Heym and Jakov Lind. Rochester, NY: Camden House.
    [Google Scholar]
  77. Symmes, Elley Margaret
    2013 “Why Translation Matters, Edith Grossman.” Cadernos de traduçao1 (31): 223–259. 10.5007/2175‑7968.2013v1n31p230
    https://doi.org/10.5007/2175-7968.2013v1n31p230 [Google Scholar]
  78. Tardy, Christine M.
    2017 “Crossing, or Creating, Divides? A Plea for Transdisciplinary Scholarship.” InCrossing Divides: Exploring Translingual Writing Pedagogies and Programs, ed. byBruce Horner, and Laura Tetreault, 181–189. Boulder, CO: Utah State University Press. 10.7330/9781607326205.c010
    https://doi.org/10.7330/9781607326205.c010 [Google Scholar]
  79. Thiong’o, Ngugi Wa
    2003 “Imperialism of Language: English, a Language for the World?” InSwitching Languages: Translingual Writers Reflect on Their Craft, ed. bySteven G. Kellman, 169–181. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  80. Tosta, Antonio Luciano de Andrade
    2016Confluence Narratives: Ethnicity, History, and Nation-making in the Americas. Lewisburg, PA: Bucknell University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  81. Valdman, Albert
    2015Haitian Creole: Structure, Variation, Status, Origin. Sheffield, UK: Equinox.
    [Google Scholar]
  82. Waldron, John
    2018 “Writing at the End of the World.” ReVista: Harvard Review of Latin America18 (3): 30–82.
    [Google Scholar]
  83. Weininger, Melissa
    2016 “Language Politics: The Boundaries of Homeland and Translingual Israeli Literature.” Studies in the Novel48 (4): 477–493. 10.1353/sdn.2016.0050
    https://doi.org/10.1353/sdn.2016.0050 [Google Scholar]
  84. Wilson, Rita
    2011a “Cultural Mediation through Translingual Narrative.” Target: International Journal of Translation Studies23 (2): 235–250. 10.1075/target.23.2.05wil
    https://doi.org/10.1075/target.23.2.05wil [Google Scholar]
  85. 2011b “Transplanted Subjects: Self-Translation Processes in Translingual Narratives.” Oltreoceano: Rivista sulle migrazioni51: 123–138.
    [Google Scholar]
  86. You, Xiaoye
    2006 “Globalization and the Politics of Teaching EFL Writing.” InThe Politics of Second Language Writing: In Search of the Promised Land, ed. byPaul Kei Matsuda, Christina Ortmeier-Hooper, and Xiaoye You, 188–204. West Lafayette, IN: Parlor.
    [Google Scholar]
  87. Young, Vershawn Ashanti
    2004 “Your Average Nigga.” College Composition and Communication55 (4): 693–715. 10.2307/4140667
    https://doi.org/10.2307/4140667 [Google Scholar]
  88. 2013 “Keep Code-meshing.” InLiteracy as Translingual Practice: Between Communities and Classrooms, ed. byA. Suresh Canagarajah, 139–145. Abingdon, UK: Routledge.
    [Google Scholar]
  89. Young, Vershawn Ashanti, and Aja Y. Martinez
    eds. 2011Code Meshing as World English: Policy, Pedagogy, Performance. Urbana, IL: National Council of Teachers of English
    [Google Scholar]

Data & Media loading...

  • Article Type: Research Article
Keyword(s): code-meshing; code-switching; identity; translingualism
This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was successful
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error