Volume 3, Issue 3
  • ISSN 2352-1805
  • E-ISSN: 2352-1813
Buy:$35.00 + Taxes


Adopting a sociological approach, this article focuses on the interface between fandom and translation. It investigates the structural rules and resources driving and conditioning translation activity in post-revolutionary Iran and the consequences it might engender. The textual and paratextual data is collected from the official and parallel volunteer translations of series by George R. R. Martin. It is argued that translaboration, a blended concept aligning the notions of translation and collaboration, in cyberspace is a response to the structurally imposed constraints, and an attempt to take control of discourse and to resist the state rules which instrumentalise translation to perpetuate the dominant discourse. This type of translaboration, which is outside the official translational policies of the state, delineates the expectations not being met by the officially published translation, and also demarcates the formal and informal norms. Drawing on their resources, the translaborators not only empower the source text to reach a wider readership without the mediation of the institutional structures of power, but also in turn are empowered by the translation.


Article metrics loading...

Loading full text...

Full text loading...


  1. Baker, Mona
    2009 “Resisting State Terror: Theorising Communities of Activist Translators and Interpreters.” InGlobalization, Political Violence and Translation, ed. by Esperanca Bielsa and Christopher Hughes , 222–242. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan. doi: 10.1057/9780230235410_12
    https://doi.org/10.1057/9780230235410_12 [Google Scholar]
  2. 2013 “Translation as an Alternative Space for Political Action.” Social Movement Studies12 (1): 23–47. doi: 10.1080/14742837.2012.685624
    https://doi.org/10.1080/14742837.2012.685624 [Google Scholar]
  3. Billiani, Francesca
    2007Modes of Censorship and Translation: National Contexts and Diverse Media. Manchester: St. Jerome.
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Boéri, Julie , and Carol Maier
    2010Translation/Interpreting and Social Activism. Manchester: St. Jerome.
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Brabham, Daren C.
    2013Crowdsourcing. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  6. Chesterman, Andrew
    1997Memes of Translation: The Spread of Ideas in Translation Theory. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. doi: 10.1075/btl.22
    https://doi.org/10.1075/btl.22 [Google Scholar]
  7. Cordingley, Anthony , and Céline Frigau Manning
    2017Collaborative Translation: From the Renaissance to the Digital Age. London: Bloomsbury.
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Cronin, Michael
    2012Translation in the Digital Age. New York: Routledge.
    [Google Scholar]
  9. Désilets, Alain , and Jaap van der Meer
    2011 “Co-creating a Repository of Best-practices for Collaborative Translation.” Antverpiensia New Series: Themes in Translation Studies10: 27–45.
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Dombek, Magdalena
    2014A Study into the Motivations of Internet Users Contributing to Translation Crowdsourcing: The Case of Polish Facebook User-translators. PhD diss.Dublin City University.
    [Google Scholar]
  11. Giddens, Anthony
    1976New Rules of Sociological Method: A Positive Critique of Interpretative Sociologies. London: Hutchinson.
    [Google Scholar]
  12. 1984The Constitution of Society: Outline of the Theory of Structuration. Cambridge: Polity.
    [Google Scholar]
  13. Inglis, David , and Christopher Thorpe
    2012An Invitation to Social Theory. Cambridge: Polity.
    [Google Scholar]
  14. IPA
    IPA 2009Freedom to Publish under Siege in the Islamic Republic of Iran. International Publishers Association. AccessedAugust 13, 2012. www.internationalpublishers.org/images/pdf/FTP/PositionPapers/final_iran_report.pdf.
    [Google Scholar]
  15. Jiménez-Crespo, Miguel A.
    2013Translation and Web Localization. London: Routledge.
    [Google Scholar]
  16. Karimi-Hakkak, Ahmad
    1990 “Censorship.” InEncyclopedia Iranica. www.iranicaonline.org/articles/censorship-sansur-in-persia.
    [Google Scholar]
  17. Mahdavi, Pardis
    2009Passionate Uprisings: Iran’s Sexual Revolution. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  18. Martin, George R. R.
    1996aA Game of Thrones. London: HarperCollins.
    [Google Scholar]
  19. 1996bبازی تاج و تخت [orig. A Game of Thrones]. Translated by Roya Khademoreza . Tehran: Vida.
    [Google Scholar]
  20. McDonough Dolmaya, Julie
    2012 “Analyzing the Crowdsourcing Model and its Impact on Public Perceptions of Translation.” The Translator18 (2): 167–191. doi: 10.1080/13556509.2012.10799507
    https://doi.org/10.1080/13556509.2012.10799507 [Google Scholar]
  21. Milani, Farzaneh
    1985 “Power, Prudence, and Print: Censorship and Simin Danashvar.” Iranian Studies18 (2–4): 325–347. doi: 10.1080/00210868508701661
    https://doi.org/10.1080/00210868508701661 [Google Scholar]
  22. Nye, Joseph S.
    2007 “Notes for a Softpower Research Agenda.” InPower in World Politics, ed. by Felix Berenskoetter and Michael J. Williams , 162–172. London: Routledge.
    [Google Scholar]
  23. O’Brien, Sharon
    2011 “Collaborative Translation.” InHandbook of Translation Studies, ed. by Yves Gambier and Luc van van Doorslaer , 17–20. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. doi: 10.1075/hts.2.col1
    https://doi.org/10.1075/hts.2.col1 [Google Scholar]
  24. O’Brien, Sharon , and Reinhard Schäler
    2010 “Next Generation Translation and Localization: Users are Taking Charge.” InProceedings of Translating and the Computer32. London: Aslib.
    [Google Scholar]
  25. O’Hagan, Minako
    2009 “Evolution of User-generated Translation: Fansubs, Translation Hacking and Crowdsourcing.” Journal of Internationalization and Localization1 (1): 94–121. doi: 10.1075/jial.1.04hag
    https://doi.org/10.1075/jial.1.04hag [Google Scholar]
  26. 2012 “From Fan Translation to Crowdsourcing: Consequences of Web 2.0 User Empowerment in Audiovisual Translation.” InAudiovisual Translation and Media Accessibility at the Crossroads, ed. by Aline Remael , Pilar Orero , and Mary Carroll , 25–41. Amsterdam: Rodopi.
    [Google Scholar]
  27. 2016 “Massively Open Translation: Unpacking the Relationship between Technology and Translation in the 21st Century.” International Journal of Communication10: 929–946.
    [Google Scholar]
  28. Olohan, Maeve
    2014 “Why do you Translate? Motivation to Volunteer and TED Translation.” Translation Studies7 (1): 17–33. doi: 10.1080/14781700.2013.781952
    https://doi.org/10.1080/14781700.2013.781952 [Google Scholar]
  29. Pérez-González, Luis
    2010 “‘Ad-hocracies’ of Translation Activism in the Blogosphere.” InText and Context: Essays on Translation and Interpreting in Honour of Ian Mason, ed. by Mona Baker , Maeve Olohan , and Maria Calzada Perez , 259–287. Manchester: St. Jerome.
    [Google Scholar]
  30. 2013 “Amateur Subtitling as Immaterial Labour in Digital Media Culture.” Convergence: The International Journal of Research into New Media Technologies19 (2): 157–175.
    [Google Scholar]
  31. Perrino, Saverio
    2009 “User-generated Translation: The Future of Translation in a Web 2.0 Environment.” JoSTran – Journal of Specialised Translation (12). www.jostrans.org/issue12/art_perrino.php
    [Google Scholar]
  32. Ray, Rebecca , and Nataly Kelly
    2011Crowdsourced Translation: Best Practices for Implementation. Lowell, Massachusetts: Common Sense Advisory.
    [Google Scholar]
  33. Risku, Hanna , and Angela Dickinson
    2009 “Translators as Networkers: The Role of Virtual Communities.” Hermes42: 49–70.
    [Google Scholar]
  34. Rundle, Christopher , and Kate Sturge
    2010Translation under Fascism. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan. doi: 10.1057/9780230292444
    https://doi.org/10.1057/9780230292444 [Google Scholar]
  35. Samini, Naghmeh
    2013 “Gendered Taboos in Iran’s Text Message Jokes.” InCultural Revolution in Iran: Contemporary Popular Culture in the Islamic Republic, ed. by Annabelle Sreberny and Massoumeh Torfeh , 209–217. London: I.B.Tauris.
    [Google Scholar]
  36. SCCR
    SCCR. اهداف و سیاست‌ها و ضوابط نشر کتاب [Objectives, Policies and Regulations for Publishing Books] 1988 AccessedNovember 17, 2013. ketab.farhang.gov.ir/fa/principles/bookprinciples67.
    [Google Scholar]
  37. Schiavi, Giuliana
    1996 “There is Always a Teller in a Tale.” Target8 (1): 1–21. doi: 10.1075/target.8.1.02sch
    https://doi.org/10.1075/target.8.1.02sch [Google Scholar]
  38. Seruya, Teresa , and Maria Lin Moniz
    2008Translation and Censorship in Different Times and Landscapes. Newcastle: Cambridge Scholars.
    [Google Scholar]
  39. Venuti, Lawrence
    1995The Translator’s Invisibility: A History of Translation. London: Routledge. doi: 10.4324/9780203360064
    https://doi.org/10.4324/9780203360064 [Google Scholar]

Data & Media loading...

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was successful
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error