Volume 65, Issue 1
  • ISSN 0169-7420
  • E-ISSN: 2213-4883
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From 1989 until 1997 the project Language Learning/or European Citizenship was carried out under the auspices of the Council of Europe in Strasbourg. In this project two instruments were developed. The first instrument is the European Framework of Reference. This is a kind of language scale through which knowledge and qualifications in different languages can be compared. The second instrument is the European Language Portfolio. This is a kind of language passport through which languages users can report and document their proficiency in, and use of different languages. This contribution gives a description of these instruments. In addition, there is a summary of the results of a pilot project in the Netherlands which focused on the multilingual classroom at the end of primary school.


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  • Article Type: Research Article
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