Volume 81, Issue 1
  • ISSN 0169-7420
  • E-ISSN: 2213-4883
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In theory, opaque orthographies should pose more difficulties for people with developmental dyslexia than transparent ones. (Frost, 2005). However, studies (Miller-Guron & Lundberg, 2000; Van der Leij & Morfidi, 2006) show that some people with dyslexia are better at reading L2 English than their L1 transparent orthography. The current study suggests that they have a form of dyslexia known as phonological dyslexia. On the basis of the dual-route model (Coltheart, 2005), it is proposed that membership of a dyslexic subtype - phonological or surface - influences success in dealing with orthographic depth. To test this, Dutch teenagers with phonological and surface dyslexia performed Dutch and English orthographic competence and spelling tasks. The results seem to indicate that people with phonological dyslexia are more successful in reading English as an L2 opaque than Dutch as an L1 transparent orthography; however, in the case of spelling, the reverse pattern is observed.


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  • Article Type: Research Article
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