Volume 20, Issue 2
  • ISSN 1387-6732
  • E-ISSN: 1570-6001
Buy:$35.00 + Taxes


We examined the instability of reading errors, that is whether a child reads the same word sometimes correctly and sometimes incorrectly, and whether typical readers differ in their instability from poor readers. With an interval of a few days, Dutch CVC words were read twice by typically developing first and second graders and reading-level matched poor readers. Error instability was considerable and second graders produced more unstable errors than first graders. Poor readers did not differ from typical readers, suggesting a developmental lag for poor readers. Of the word characteristics studied, frequency was the strongest predictor: the higher word frequency, the higher error instability. Our study indicates that error instability can be considered as an indicator of the transition from incompetence to reading competence.


Article metrics loading...

Loading full text...

Full text loading...


  1. Allison, P. D.
    (1999) Logistic regression using the SAS System: Theory and Application. Cary, NC: SAS Institute Inc.
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Arduino, L. S. , & Burani, C.
    (2004) Neighborhood effects on nonwords visual processing in a language with shallow orthography. Journal of Psycholinguistic Research33: 75–95. doi: 10.1023/B:JOPR.0000010515.58435.68
    https://doi.org/10.1023/B:JOPR.0000010515.58435.68 [Google Scholar]
  3. Aro, M. , & Wimmer, H.
    (2003) Learning to read: English in comparison to six more regular orthographies. Applied Psycholinguistics24: 621–635. doi: 10.1017/S0142716403000316
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S0142716403000316 [Google Scholar]
  4. Baayen, R. H.
    (2001) Word frequency distributions. Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Kluwer Academic Publishers. doi: 10.1007/978‑94‑010‑0844‑0
    https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-010-0844-0 [Google Scholar]
  5. Baayen, R. H. , Piepenbrock, R. , & van Rijn, H.
    (1993) The CELEX lexical database [Computer Software]. Philadelphia, PA: Linguistic Data Consortium, University of Pennsylvania.
    [Google Scholar]
  6. Balota, D. A. , Yap, M. J. , & Cortese, M. J.
    (2006) Visual word recognition: The journey from features to meaning (a travel update). In M. J. Traxler & M. A. Gernsbacher (eds.), Handbook of psycholinguistics (2nd ed.), 285–375. London: Elsevier. doi: 10.1016/B978‑012369374‑7/50010‑9
    https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-012369374-7/50010-9 [Google Scholar]
  7. Belsley, D. A.
    (1991) Conditioning diagnostics: Collinearity and weak data in regression. New York, NY: Wiley.
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Boekaerts, M. , & Rozendaal, J. S.
    (2010) Using multiple calibration measures in order to capture the complex picture of what affects students’ accuracy of feeling of confidence. Learning and Instruction20: 372–382. doi: 10.1016/j.learninstruc.2009.03.002
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.learninstruc.2009.03.002 [Google Scholar]
  9. Booij, G.
    (1995) The phonology of Dutch. Oxford: Clarendon Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Chatterjee, S. , Hadi, A. S. , & Price, B.
    (2000) Regression analysis by example. New York, NY: Wiley.
    [Google Scholar]
  11. Coltheart, M. , Rastle, K. , Perry, C. , Langdon, R. , & Ziegler, J.
    (2001) DRC: A dual route cascaded model of visual word recognition and reading aloud. Psychological Review108: 204–256. doi: 10.1037/0033‑295X.108.1.204
    https://doi.org/10.1037/0033-295X.108.1.204 [Google Scholar]
  12. Cossu, G. , Shankweiler, D. , Liberman, I. Y. , & Gugliotta, M.
    (1995) Visual and phonological determinants of misreadings in a transparent orthography. Reading and Writing: An Interdisciplinary Journal7: 237–256. doi: 10.1007/BF02539523
    https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02539523 [Google Scholar]
  13. de Jong, P. F. , & van der Leij, A.
    (2003) Developmental changes in the manifestation of a phonological deficit in dyslexic children learning to read a regular orthography. Journal of Educational Psychology95: 22–40. doi: 10.1037/0022‑0663.95.1.22
    https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-0663.95.1.22 [Google Scholar]
  14. DeMaris, A.
    (2002) Explained variance in logistic regression: A Monte Carlo study of proposed measures. Sociological Methods & Research31: 27–74. doi: 10.1177/0049124102031001002
    https://doi.org/10.1177/0049124102031001002 [Google Scholar]
  15. Efklides, A.
    (2008) Metacognition: defining its facets and levels of functioning in relation to self-regulation and co-regulation. European Psychologist13: 277–287. doi: 10.1027/1016‑9040.13.4.277
    https://doi.org/10.1027/1016-9040.13.4.277 [Google Scholar]
  16. Ellis, N. C. , Natsume, M. , Stavropoulou, K. , Hoxhallari, L. , van Daal, V. H. P. , Polyzoe, N. , Tsipa, M. L. , & Petalas, M.
    (2004) The effects of orthographic depth on learning to read alphabetic, syllabic, and logographic scripts. Reading Research Quarterly39: 438–468. doi: 10.1598/RRQ.39.4.5
    https://doi.org/10.1598/RRQ.39.4.5 [Google Scholar]
  17. Eurybase
    Eurybase (2008) Organization of the education system in the Netherlands. Retrieved fromeacea.ec.europa.eu/education/eurydice/eurybase_en.php
    [Google Scholar]
  18. Frauenfelder, U. H. , Baayen, R. H. , Hellwig, F. M. , & Schreuder, R.
    (1993) Neighborhood density and frequency across languages and modalities. Journal of Memory and Language32: 781–804. doi: 10.1006/jmla.1993.1039
    https://doi.org/10.1006/jmla.1993.1039 [Google Scholar]
  19. Gernsbacher, M. A.
    (1984) Resolving 20 years of inconsistent interactions between lexical familiarity and orthography, concreteness, and polysemy. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General113: 256–281. doi: 10.1037/0096‑3445.113.2.256
    https://doi.org/10.1037/0096-3445.113.2.256 [Google Scholar]
  20. Goikoetxea, E.
    (2006) Reading errors in first- and second-grade readers of a shallow orthography: Evidence from Spanish. British Journal of Educational Psychology76: 333–350. doi: 10.1348/000709905X52490
    https://doi.org/10.1348/000709905X52490 [Google Scholar]
  21. Goswami, U.
    (2002) Phonology, reading development, and dyslexia: A cross-linguistic perspective. Annals of Dyslexia52: 1–23. doi: 10.1007/s11881‑002‑0010‑0
    https://doi.org/10.1007/s11881-002-0010-0 [Google Scholar]
  22. Gough, P. B. , Juel, C. , & Griffith, P. L.
    (1992) Reading, spelling, and the orthographic cipher. In P. B. Gough , L. C. Ehri , & R. Treiman (eds.), Reading acquisition, 35–48. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
    [Google Scholar]
  23. Gutierrez, A. P. , Schraw, G. , Kuch, F. , & Richmond, A. S.
    (2016) A two-process model of metacognitive monitoring: Evidence for general accuracy and error factors. Learning and Instruction44: 1–10. doi: 10.1016/j.learninstruc.2016.02.006
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.learninstruc.2016.02.006 [Google Scholar]
  24. Habib, M.
    (2000) The neurological basis of developmental dyslexia: An overview and working hypothesis. Brain123: 2373–2399. doi: 10.1093/brain/123.12.2373
    https://doi.org/10.1093/brain/123.12.2373 [Google Scholar]
  25. Landauer, T. K. , & Streeter, L. A.
    (1973) Structural differences between common and rare words: Failure or equivalence assumptions for theories of word recognition. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior12: 119–131. doi: 10.1016/S0022‑5371(73)80001‑5
    https://doi.org/10.1016/S0022-5371(73)80001-5 [Google Scholar]
  26. Landerl, K.
    (2001) Word recognition deficits in German: More evidence from a representative sample. Dyslexia7: 183–196. doi: 10.1002/dys.199
    https://doi.org/10.1002/dys.199 [Google Scholar]
  27. McKelvey, R. D. , & Zavoina, W.
    (1975) A statistical model for the analysis of ordinal dependent variables. Journal of Mathematical Sociology4: 102–120. doi: 10.1080/0022250X.1975.9989847
    https://doi.org/10.1080/0022250X.1975.9989847 [Google Scholar]
  28. McKenna, M. C. , & Picard, M. C.
    (2006) Revisiting the role of miscue analysis in effective teaching. The Reading Teacher60: 378–380. doi: 10.1598/RT.60.4.8
    https://doi.org/10.1598/RT.60.4.8 [Google Scholar]
  29. Miller Guron, L. , & Lundberg, I.
    (2004) Error patterns in word reading among primary school children: A cross-orthographic study. Dyslexia10: 44–60. doi: 10.1002/dys.260
    https://doi.org/10.1002/dys.260 [Google Scholar]
  30. Murray, W. S. , & Forster, K. I.
    (2004) Serial mechanisms in lexical access: The rank hypothesis. Psychological Review111: 721–756. doi: 10.1037/0033‑295X.111.3.721
    https://doi.org/10.1037/0033-295X.111.3.721 [Google Scholar]
  31. Nunnally, J. C. & Bernstein, I. H.
    (1994) Psychometric theory (3rd ed). New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.
    [Google Scholar]
  32. Ognjenović, V. , Lukatela, G. , Feldman, L. B. , & Turvey, M. T.
    (1983) Misreadings by beginning readers of Serbo-Croatian. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology35A: 97–109. doi: 10.1080/14640748308402119
    https://doi.org/10.1080/14640748308402119 [Google Scholar]
  33. Patel, T. K. , Snowling, M. J. , & de Jong, P. F.
    (2004) A cross-linguistic comparison of children learning to read in English and Dutch. Journal of Educational Psychology96: 785–797. doi: 10.1037/0022‑0663.96.4.785
    https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-0663.96.4.785 [Google Scholar]
  34. Rastle, K.
    (2007) Visual word recognition. In: M. G. Gaskell (ed.), The Oxford Handbook of Psycholinguistics, 71–87. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  35. Serra, M. J. , & Metcalfe, J.
    (2009) Effective implementation of metacognition. In D. J. Hacker , J. Dunlosky , & A. C. Graesser (eds.), Handbook of metacognition in education, 278–298. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.
    [Google Scholar]
  36. Serrano, F. , & Defior, S.
    (2008) Dyslexia speed problems in a transparent orthography. Annals of Dyslexia58: 81–95. doi: 10.1007/s11881‑008‑0013‑6
    https://doi.org/10.1007/s11881-008-0013-6 [Google Scholar]
  37. Seymour, P. H. K. , Aro, M. , & Erskine, J. M.
    (2003) Foundation literacy acquisition in European orthographies. British Journal of Psychology94: 143–174. doi: 10.1348/000712603321661859
    https://doi.org/10.1348/000712603321661859 [Google Scholar]
  38. Share, D. L.
    (1995) Phonological recoding and self-teaching: Sine qua non of reading acquisition. Cognition55: 151–218. doi: 10.1016/0010‑0277(94)00645‑2
    https://doi.org/10.1016/0010-0277(94)00645-2 [Google Scholar]
  39. Steenbeek-Planting, E. G. , van Bon, W. H. J. , & Schreuder, R.
    (2012) Improving word reading speed: Individual differences interact with a training focus on successes or failures. Reading and Writing: An Interdisciplinary Journal25: 2061–2089. doi: 10.1007/s11145‑011‑9342‑7
    https://doi.org/10.1007/s11145-011-9342-7 [Google Scholar]
  40. (2013a) Instability of children’s reading errors in bisyllabic words: The role of context-sensitive spelling rules. Learning and Instruction26: 59–70. doi: 10.1016/j.learninstruc.2013.01.004
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.learninstruc.2013.01.004 [Google Scholar]
  41. (2013b) Improving the accuracy of reading bisyllabic words that involve context-sensitive spelling rules: Focus on successes or on failures?Reading and Writing: An Interdisciplinary Journal26: 1437–1458. doi: 10.1007/s11145‑012‑9425‑0
    https://doi.org/10.1007/s11145-012-9425-0 [Google Scholar]
  42. van Bon, W. H. J.
    (2007) De Doorstreepleestoets [Paper-and-pen lexical decision task]. Leiden, The Netherlands: PITS.
    [Google Scholar]
  43. van Bon, W. H. J. , Bouwmans, M. , & Broeders, I. N. L. D. C.
    (2006) The prevalence of poor reading in Dutch special elementary education. Journal of Learning Disabilities39: 482–495. doi: 10.1177/00222194060390060101
    https://doi.org/10.1177/00222194060390060101 [Google Scholar]
  44. van Bon, W. H. J. , Hoevenaars, L. T. M. , & Jongeneelen, J. J.
    (2004) Using pencil-and-paper lexical-decision tests to assess word decoding skill: Aspects of validity and reliability. Journal of Research in Reading27: 58–68. doi: 10.1111/j.1467‑9817.2004.00214.x
    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9817.2004.00214.x [Google Scholar]
  45. van den Bos, K. P. , Lutje Spelberg, H. C. , Scheepstra, A. J. M. , & de Vries, J. R.
    (1994) De Klepel – Verantwoording, Diagnostiek en Behandeling [Nonword Reading Test]. Nijmegen, The Netherlands: Berkhout.
    [Google Scholar]
  46. Verhoeven, L. T. W.
    (1995) Drie-Minuten-Toets [Three-Minutes Test]. Arnhem, The Netherlands: Cito.
    [Google Scholar]
  47. Verhoeven, L. T. W. , & van Leeuwe, J.
    (2003) Ontwikkeling van decodeervaardigheid in het basisonderwijs [Development of decoding ability in primary education]. Pedagogische Studiën80: 257–271.
    [Google Scholar]
  48. (2009) Modeling the growth of word-decoding skills: Evidence from Dutch. Scientific Studies of Reading13: 205–223. doi: 10.1080/10888430902851356
    https://doi.org/10.1080/10888430902851356 [Google Scholar]
  49. Wimmer, H. , & Goswami, U.
    (1994) The influence of orthographic consistency on reading development: Word recognition in English and German children. Cognition51: 91–103. doi: 10.1016/0010‑0277(94)90010‑8
    https://doi.org/10.1016/0010-0277(94)90010-8 [Google Scholar]
  50. Winne, P. H. , & Nesbit, J. C.
    (2009) Supporting self-regulated learning with cognitive tools. In D. J. Hacker , J. Dunlosky , & A. C. Grasser (eds.), Handbook of metacognition in education, 258–277. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.
    [Google Scholar]
  51. Wood, C.
    (2002) Orthographic analogies and phonological priming effects. Journal of Research in Reading25: 144–159. doi: 10.1111/1467‑9817.00165
    https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-9817.00165 [Google Scholar]
  52. Zipf, G. K.
    (1936) The psycho-biology of language: An introduction of dynamic philology. London: Routledge.
    [Google Scholar]

Data & Media loading...

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was successful
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error