1887
Volume 21, Issue 2
  • ISSN 1387-6732
  • E-ISSN: 1570-6001
USD
Buy:$35.00 + Taxes

Abstract

Abstract

The aim of the current study was two-fold. It aimed (i) to examine how a multi-component task, as well as more specific executive function (EF) tasks, are related to a wide range of early literacy (phonological awareness, orthographic knowledge, word writing) and emergent mathematical abilities; and (ii) to broaden our understanding of the similar (domain-general) or differential (domain-specific) nature of these relations. The study was conducted in the northern part of Israel. Our results indicated that the multi-component task , which taps most EF components (attentional control, inhibition, shifting, and working memory) significantly contributed to most domains of preschool academic development. These included orthographic knowledge and emergent mathematical abilities even after controlling for the role of background cognitive skills.

The findings showed that EF tasks have domain-general predictive power for pre-academic abilities that are less automatic and require more effortful processing of information such as word writing at preschool age. Moreover, our results provide clear empirical evidence for the psychometric validity of the multi-component task as a tool that can assess individual differences in EFs for the early identification of children at risk for academic difficulties. This finding can contribute to practitioners searching for an ecologically valid, age-appropriate, and age-sensitive measure of EF abilities as a diagnostic tool.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.1075/wll.00016.sch
2019-04-24
2019-11-14
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

References

  1. Adams, Marilyn J.
    (1990) Beginning to read: Thinking and learning about print. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Alloway, Tracy P.
    (2007) Automated Working Memory Assessment (AWMA). London: Pearson Assessment.
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Alloway, Tracy P., Susan E. Gathercole, Hannah Kirkwood & Julian Elliot
    (2009) The cognitive and behavioral characteristics of children with low working memory. Child Development80(2): 606–621. 10.1111/j.1467‑8624.2009.01282.x
    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-8624.2009.01282.x [Google Scholar]
  4. Anderson, Peter
    (2002) Assessment and development of executive function in childhood. Child Neuropsychology8: 71–82. 10.1076/chin.8.2.71.8724
    https://doi.org/10.1076/chin.8.2.71.8724 [Google Scholar]
  5. Aram, Dorit
    (2005) Continuity in children’s literacy achievements. A longitudinal perspective from kindergarten to school. First Language25(3): 259–289. 10.1177/0142723705050339
    https://doi.org/10.1177/0142723705050339 [Google Scholar]
  6. Aram, Dorit, Shimrit Abiri & Lili Elad
    (2014) Predicting early writing: The contribution of children’s early literacy, self- regulation, private speech during writing, and parental writing support. Reading and Writing27: 685–707. 10.1007/s11145‑013‑9466‑z
    https://doi.org/10.1007/s11145-013-9466-z [Google Scholar]
  7. Baddeley, Alan D.
    (1986) Working memory. Oxford, England: Clarendon Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  8. (1990) Human memory: Theory and practice. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
    [Google Scholar]
  9. (2003) Working memory and language: An overview. Journal of Communication Disorders36: 189–208. 10.1016/S0021‑9924(03)00019‑4
    https://doi.org/10.1016/S0021-9924(03)00019-4 [Google Scholar]
  10. Barkley, Russell A.
    (2000) Genetics of childhood disorders: XVII. ADHD, Part I: The executive functions and ADHD. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry39: 1064–1068. 10.1097/00004583‑200008000‑00025
    https://doi.org/10.1097/00004583-200008000-00025 [Google Scholar]
  11. Beattie, Rachel L. & Franklin R. Manis
    (2014) The relationship between prosodic perception, phonological awareness and vocabulary in emergent literacy. Journal of Research in Reading37: 119–137. 10.1111/j.1467‑9817.2011.01507.x
    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9817.2011.01507.x [Google Scholar]
  12. Blair, Clancy
    (2002) School readiness: Integrating cognition and emotion in a neurobiological conceptualization of child functioning at school entry. American Psychologist57: 111–127. 10.1037/0003‑066X.57.2.111
    https://doi.org/10.1037/0003-066X.57.2.111 [Google Scholar]
  13. Blair, Clancy & Rachel P. Razza
    (2007) Relating effortful control, executive function, and false belief understanding to emerging math and literacy ability in preschool. Child Development78: 647–663. 10.1111/j.1467‑8624.2007.01019.x
    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-8624.2007.01019.x [Google Scholar]
  14. Blair, Clancy, Alexandra Ursache, Mark Greenberg & Lynne Vernon-Feagans
    (2015) Multiple aspects of self-regulation uniquely predict mathematics but not letter-word knowledge in the early elementary grades. Developmental Psychology51(4): 459–472. 10.1037/a0038813
    https://doi.org/10.1037/a0038813 [Google Scholar]
  15. Both-de Vries, Anna C. & Adrianna G. Bus
    (2008) Name writing: a first step to phonetic writing? Does the name have a special role in understanding the symbolic function of writing?Literacy Learning and Teaching12: 37–55.
    [Google Scholar]
  16. Brocki, Karin C. & Gunilla Bohlin
    (2004) Executive functions in children aged 6 to 13: A dimensional and developmental study. Developmental Neuropsychology26(2): 571–593. 10.1207/s15326942dn2602_3
    https://doi.org/10.1207/s15326942dn2602_3 [Google Scholar]
  17. Carpenter, Malinda, Katherine Nagell, Micheal Tomasello & George Butterworth
    (1998) Social cognition, joint attention, and communicative competencies from 9 to 15 months of age. Monographs of the Society of Research in Child Development63(4, Serial No. 255). 10.2307/1166214
    https://doi.org/10.2307/1166214 [Google Scholar]
  18. Claessens, Amy, Greg Duncan & Mimi Engel
    (2009) Kindergarten skills and fifth-grade achievement: Evidence from the ECLS-K. Economics of Education Review28: 415–427. 10.1016/j.econedurev.2008.09.003
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.econedurev.2008.09.003 [Google Scholar]
  19. Clarke, Ben, Scott K. Baker, Keith Smolkowski & David J. Chard
    (2008) An analysis of early numeracy curriculum-based measurement: Examining the role of growth in student outcomes. Remedial & Special Education29: 46–57. 10.1177/0741932507309694
    https://doi.org/10.1177/0741932507309694 [Google Scholar]
  20. Clay, Marie M.
    (1993) Reading recovery: A guidebook for teachers in training. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann.
    [Google Scholar]
  21. Collette, Fabienne, Martial van der Linden, Steven Laureys, Guy Delfiore, Christian Degueldre, Andre Luxen & Eric Salmon
    (2005) Exploring the unity and diversity of the neural substrates of executive functioning. Human Brain Mapping25: 409–423. 10.1002/hbm.20118
    https://doi.org/10.1002/hbm.20118 [Google Scholar]
  22. D’Esposito, Mark & Bradley R. Postle
    (2015) The cognitive neuroscience of working memory. Annual Review of Psychology66:115–142. 10.1146/annurev‑psych‑010814‑015031
    https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-psych-010814-015031 [Google Scholar]
  23. Davidson, Matthew C., Dima Amso, Loren Cruess Anderson & Adele Diamond
    (2006) Development of cognitive control and executive functions from 4 to 13 years: Evidence from manipulations of memory, inhibition, and task switching. Neuropsychologia44(11): 2037–2078. 10.1016/j.neuropsychologia.2006.02.006
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neuropsychologia.2006.02.006 [Google Scholar]
  24. Dawson, Peg & Richard Guare
    (2004) Executive skills in children and adolescents: A practical guide to assessment and intervention. New York: Guilford Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  25. Diamond, Adele
    (2006) The early development of executive functions. InEllen Bialystok & Fergus I. M. Craik (eds.), Lifespan cognition: Mechanisms of change, 70–96. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press. 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195169539.003.0006
    https://doi.org/10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195169539.003.0006 [Google Scholar]
  26. Diamond, Adele, Stevens W. Barnett, Jessica Thomas & Sarah Munro
    (2007) Preschool program improves cognitive control. Science30: 1387–1388. 10.1126/science.1151148
    https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1151148 [Google Scholar]
  27. Diamond, Adele, Natasha Kirkham & Dima Amso
    (2002) Condition under which young children can hold two rules in mind and inhibit a prepotent response. Development Psychology38(3): 352–362. 10.1037/0012‑1649.38.3.352
    https://doi.org/10.1037/0012-1649.38.3.352 [Google Scholar]
  28. Dyson, Nancy, Nancy C. Jordan, Amber Beliakoff & Brenna Hassinger-Da
    (2015) A kindergarten number-sense intervention with contrasting practice conditions for low-achieving children. Journal for Research in Mathematics Education46: 331–370. 10.5951/jresematheduc.46.3.0331
    https://doi.org/10.5951/jresematheduc.46.3.0331 [Google Scholar]
  29. Espy, Kimberly Andrews, Melanie D. MacDiarmid, Mary F. Cwik, Melissa Meade Stalets, Arlena Hamby & Theresa E. Senn
    (2004) The contribution of executive functions to emergent mathematical skills in preschool children. Developmental Neuropsychology26: 465–486. 10.1207/s15326942dn2601_6
    https://doi.org/10.1207/s15326942dn2601_6 [Google Scholar]
  30. Frijters, Jan C., Rorderock W. Barron & Maria Brunello
    (2000) Direct and mediated influences of home literacy and literacy interest on pre-scholar’s oral vocabulary and early written language skill. Journal of Educational Psychology92: 466–477. 10.1037/0022‑0663.92.3.466
    https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-0663.92.3.466 [Google Scholar]
  31. Fuhs, Mary W., Kimberly T. Nesbitt, Dale C. Farran & Nianbo Dong
    (2014) Longitudinal associations between executive functioning and academic skills across content areas. Developmental Psychology50(6): 1698–1709. 10.1037/a0036633
    https://doi.org/10.1037/a0036633 [Google Scholar]
  32. Garon, Nancy, Susan E. Bryson & Isabel M. Smith
    (2008) Executive function in preschoolers: A review using an integrative framework. Psychological Bulletin134: 31–60. 10.1037/0033‑2909.134.1.31
    https://doi.org/10.1037/0033-2909.134.1.31 [Google Scholar]
  33. Holmes, Joni & John W. Adams
    (2006) Working memory and children’s mathematical skills: Implications for mathematical development and mathematics curricula. Educational Psychology26: 339–366. 10.1080/01443410500341056
    https://doi.org/10.1080/01443410500341056 [Google Scholar]
  34. Huizinga, Mariette, Conor V. Dolan & Maurits W. van der Molen
    (2006) Age-related change in executive function: Developmental trends and a latent variable analysis. Neuropsychologia44: 2017–2036. 10.1016/j.neuropsychologia.2006.01.010
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neuropsychologia.2006.01.010 [Google Scholar]
  35. Kaufman, Alan S. & Nadeen L. Kaufman
    (2004) Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children-Second Edition (KABCII). Circle Pines, MN: American Guidance Service.
    [Google Scholar]
  36. Kegel, Cornelia A. T. & Adriana G. Bus
    (2013) Evidence for causal relations between executive functions and alphabetic skills based on longitudinal data. Infant and Child Development23(1): 22–35. 10.1002/icd.1827
    https://doi.org/10.1002/icd.1827 [Google Scholar]
  37. Kellogg, Ronald T.
    (2008) Training writing skills: A cognitive developmental perspective. Journal of Writing Research, 1(1), 1–26. 10.17239/jowr‑2008.01.01.1
    https://doi.org/10.17239/jowr-2008.01.01.1 [Google Scholar]
  38. Koponen, Tuire, Paula Salmi, Minna Torppa, Kenneth Eklund, Tuija Aro, Mikko Aro, Anna-Maija Poikkeus, Marja-Kristiina Lerkkanen & Jari-Erik Nurmi
    (2016) Counting and rapid naming predict the fluency of arithmetic and reading skills. Contemporary Educational Psychology44: 83–94. 10.1016/j.cedpsych.2016.02.004
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cedpsych.2016.02.004 [Google Scholar]
  39. Korkman, Marit, Ursula Kirk & Sally Kemp
    (1998) NEPSY: A developmental neuropsychological assessment. San Antonio, TX: Psychological Corporation.
    [Google Scholar]
  40. Krajewski, Kristin & Wolfgang Schneider
    (2009) Early development of quantity to number-word linkage as a precursor of mathematical school achievement and mathematical difficulties: Findings from a four-year longitudinal study. Learning and Instruction19: 513–520. 10.1016/j.learninstruc.2008.10.002
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.learninstruc.2008.10.002 [Google Scholar]
  41. Levin, Iris & Andrea Bus
    (2003) How is emergent writing based on drawing? Analyses of children’s products and their sorting by children and mothers. Developmental Psychology39: 891–905. 10.1037/0012‑1649.39.5.891
    https://doi.org/10.1037/0012-1649.39.5.891 [Google Scholar]
  42. Levin, Iris & Linnea C. Ehri
    (2009) Young children’s ability to read and spell their own and classmates’ names: The role of letter knowledge. Scientific Studies of Reading13(3): 249–273. 10.1080/10888430902851422
    https://doi.org/10.1080/10888430902851422 [Google Scholar]
  43. Lonigan, Christopher J., Stephen R. Burgess & Jason L. Anthony
    (2000) Development of emergent literacy and early reading skills in preschool children: Evidence from a latent variable longitudinal study. Developmental Psychology36: 596–613. 10.1037/0012‑1649.36.5.596
    https://doi.org/10.1037/0012-1649.36.5.596 [Google Scholar]
  44. Lonigan, Christopher J., Christopher Schatschneider & Laura Westberg
    (2008) Identification of children’s skills and abilities linked to later outcomes in reading, writing, and spelling. InChristopher J. Lonigan & Timothy Shanahan (eds.), National Early Literacy Panel, Developing early literacy: Report of the National Early Literacy Panel, 55–106. Jessup, MD: National Institute for Literacy.
    [Google Scholar]
  45. MacLeod, Colin M.
    (1991) Half a century of research on the Stroop: An integrative review. Psychological Bulletin109: 163–203. 10.1037/0033‑2909.109.2.163
    https://doi.org/10.1037/0033-2909.109.2.163 [Google Scholar]
  46. Mason, Jana M. & Janice Stewart
    (1990) Emergent literacy assessment. InLesley Mandel Morrow & Jeffrey K. Smith (eds.), Assessment for instruction in early literacy, 155–175. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.
    [Google Scholar]
  47. McClelland, Megan M., Claire E. Cameron, Robert Duncan, Ryan P. Bowles, Alan C. Acock, Alicia Miao & Megan E. Pratt
    (2014) Predictors of early growth in academic achievement: The head-toes-knees-shoulders task. Frontiers in Psychology5: 1–14. 10.3389/fpsyg.2014.00599
    https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2014.00599 [Google Scholar]
  48. McClelland, Megan M., Claire E. Cameron, Connor Carol McDonald, Carrie L. Farris, Abigail M. Jewkes, & Fredrick J. Morrison
    (2007) Links between behavioral regulation and preschoolers’ literacy, vocabulary, and math skills. Developmental Psychology43: 947–459. 10.1037/0012‑1649.43.4.947
    https://doi.org/10.1037/0012-1649.43.4.947 [Google Scholar]
  49. Miyake, Akira & Naomi P. Friedman
    (2012) The nature and organization of individual differences in executive functions: Four general conclusions. Current Directions in Psychological Science21(1): 8–14. 10.1177/0963721411429458
    https://doi.org/10.1177/0963721411429458 [Google Scholar]
  50. Miyake, Akira, Naomi P. Friedman, Michael J. Emerson, Alexander Witzki, Amy Howerter & Tor D. Wager
    (2000) The unity and diversity of executive functions and their contributions to complex “frontal lobe” tasks: A latent variable analysis. Cognitive Psychology41: 49–100. 10.1006/cogp.1999.0734
    https://doi.org/10.1006/cogp.1999.0734 [Google Scholar]
  51. Monette, Sebastien, Marc Bigras & Marie Claude Guay
    (2011) The role of the executive functions in school achievement at the end of Grade 1. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology109: 158–173. 10.1016/j.jecp.2011.01.008
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jecp.2011.01.008 [Google Scholar]
  52. National Association for the Education of Young Children and National Council of Teachers of Mathematics
    National Association for the Education of Young Children and National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (2002) Math experiences that count!Young Children57: 60–62.
    [Google Scholar]
  53. Nevo, Einat & Zvia Breznitz
    (2011) Assessment of working memory components at 6 years of age as predictors of reading achievements a year later. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology109: 73–90. 10.1016/j.jecp.2010.09.010
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jecp.2010.09.010 [Google Scholar]
  54. OECD Programme for International Student Assessment [PISA]
    OECD Programme for International Student Assessment [PISA] (2003) Literacy skills for the world of tomorrow: Further results from PISA 2000. OECD, Paris.
    [Google Scholar]
  55. Pears, Katherine C., Hyoun K. Kim, Philip A. Fisher & Karen Yoergera
    (2016) Increasing pre-kindergarten early literacy skills in children with developmental disabilities and delays. Journal of School Psychology57: 15–27. 10.1016/j.jsp.2016.05.004
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jsp.2016.05.004 [Google Scholar]
  56. Ponitz, Claire Cameron, Megan M. McClelland, Jamaal Sharif Matthews & Fredrick J. Morrison
    (2009) A structured observation of behavioral self-regulation and its contribution to preschool outcomes. Developmental Psychology45: 605–619. 10.1037/a0015365
    https://doi.org/10.1037/a0015365 [Google Scholar]
  57. Puranik, Cynthia S. & Christopher J. Lonigan
    (2011) From scribbles to scrabble: Preschool children’s developing knowledge of written language. Reading and Writing: An Interdisciplinary Journal24: 567–589. 10.1007/s11145‑009‑9220‑8
    https://doi.org/10.1007/s11145-009-9220-8 [Google Scholar]
  58. Purpura, David J., Laura E. Hume, Darcey M. Sims & Christopher J. Lonigan
    (2011) Early literacy and early numeracy: The value of including early literacy skills in the prediction of numeracy development. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology110: 647–658. 10.1016/j.jecp.2011.07.004
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jecp.2011.07.004 [Google Scholar]
  59. Purpura, David J., Sara A. Schmitt, & Colleen M. Ganley
    (2017) Foundations of mathematics and literacy: The role of executive functioning components. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology153: 15–34. 10.1016/j.jecp.2016.08.010
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jecp.2016.08.010 [Google Scholar]
  60. Raghubar, Kimberly P., Marcia A. Barnes & Steven A. Hecht
    (2010) Working memory and mathematics: A review of developmental, individual difference, and cognitive approaches. Learning and Individual Differences20: 110–122. 10.1016/j.lindif.2009.10.005
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lindif.2009.10.005 [Google Scholar]
  61. Romine, Cassandra B. & Cecil R. Reynolds
    (2005) A model of the development of frontal lobe functioning: Findings from a meta-analysis. Applied Neuropsychology12(4): 190–201. 10.1207/s15324826an1204_2
    https://doi.org/10.1207/s15324826an1204_2 [Google Scholar]
  62. Röthlisberger, Marianne, Regula Neuenschwander, Patrizia Cimeli & Claudia M. Roebers
    (2013) Executive functions in 5- to 8-year olds: Developmental changes and relationship to academic achievement. Journal of Educational & Developmental Psychology3(2): 153–167. 10.5539/jedp.v3n2p153
    https://doi.org/10.5539/jedp.v3n2p153 [Google Scholar]
  63. Schmitt, Sara A., John G. Geldhof, David J. Purpura, Robert Duncan & Megan M. McClelland
    (2017) Examining the relations between executive function, math, and literacy during the transition to kindergarten: A multi-analytic approach. Journal of Educational Psychology109: 1120–1140. 10.1037/edu0000193
    https://doi.org/10.1037/edu0000193 [Google Scholar]
  64. Sénéshal, Monique, Jo-Anne LeFevre, Brenda L. Smith-Chant & Karen Colton
    (2001) On refining theoretical models of emergent literacy: The role of empirical evidence. Journal of School Psychology38: 439–460. 10.1016/S0022‑4405(01)00081‑4
    https://doi.org/10.1016/S0022-4405(01)00081-4 [Google Scholar]
  65. Shany, Michal & Ilana Ben-Dror
    (1998) A test of phonological awareness for children. Unpublished test. Haifa, Israel.
  66. Shatil, Evelyn
    (1995) Predicting reading ability: Evidence for cognitive modularity. Doctoral thesis. University of Haifa.
  67. Shatil, Evelyn, David L. Share & Iris Levin
    (2000) On the contribution of preschool spelling to grade literacy: A longitudinal study in Hebrew. Applied Psycholinguistics21: 1–21. 10.1017/S0142716400001016
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S0142716400001016 [Google Scholar]
  68. Shaul, Shelley & Mila Schwartz
    (2014) The role of the executive functions in school readiness in preschool age children. Reading and Writing27: 749–168. 10.1007/s11145‑013‑9470‑3
    https://doi.org/10.1007/s11145-013-9470-3 [Google Scholar]
  69. Suchodoletz, Antje von, Steinunn Gestsdottir, Shannon B. Wanless, Megan M. McClelland, Freyja Birgisdottir, Catherine Gunzenhauser & Hrafnhildur Ragnarsdottir
    (2013) Behavioral self-regulation and relations to emergent academic skills among children in Germany and Iceland. Early Childhood Research Quarterly28(1): 62–73. 10.1016/j.ecresq.2012.05.003
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecresq.2012.05.003 [Google Scholar]
  70. Thompson-Schill, Sharon L., Michael Ramscar & Evangelia G. Chrysikou
    (2009) Cognition without control: When a little frontal lobe goes a long way. Current Directions in Psychological Science8: 259–263. 10.1111/j.1467‑8721.2009.01648.x
    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-8721.2009.01648.x [Google Scholar]
  71. Tolchinsky, Liliana
    (2003) The cradle of culture and what children know about writing and numbers before being. New York: Psychology Press. 10.4324/9781410607195
    https://doi.org/10.4324/9781410607195 [Google Scholar]
  72. Tomer, Rachel, Tali Fisher, Nir Giladi & Judith Aharon-Perez
    (2002) Dissociation between spontaneous and reactive flexibility in early Parkinson’s disease. Neuropsychiatry & Behavioral Neurology15(2): 106–112.
    [Google Scholar]
  73. Treiman, Rebecca, Iris Levin & Brett Kessler
    (2007) Learning of letter names follows similar principles across languages: Evidence from Hebrew. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology96: 87–106. 10.1016/j.jecp.2006.08.002
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jecp.2006.08.002 [Google Scholar]
  74. van der Sluis, Sophie, Peter F. de Jong & Arya van der Leij
    (2004) Inhibition and shifting in children with learning deficits in arithmetic and reading. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology87: 239–266. 10.1016/j.jecp.2003.12.002
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jecp.2003.12.002 [Google Scholar]
  75. Wanless, Shannon B., Megan M. McClelland, Alan C. Acock, Claire C. Ponitz, Seung-Hee Son, Xuezhao Lan, Frederick J. Morrison, Jo-Lin Chen, Fu-Mei Chen, Kangyi Lee, Miyoung Sung & Su Li
    (2011) Measuring behavioral regulation in four societies. Psychological Assessment23(2): 364–378. 10.1037/a0021768
    https://doi.org/10.1037/a0021768 [Google Scholar]
  76. Warmington, Meesha & Charles Hulme
    (2012) Phoneme awareness, visual-verbal paired – associate learning, and rapid automatized naming as predictors of individual differences in reading ability. Scientific Studies of Reading16: 45–62. 10.1080/10888438.2010.534832
    https://doi.org/10.1080/10888438.2010.534832 [Google Scholar]
  77. Wiebe, Sandra A., Kimberly A. Espy & David Charack
    (2008) Using confirmatory analysis to understand executive control in preschool children: I. Latent structure. Developmental Neuropsychology44: 575–587.
    [Google Scholar]
  78. Wiebe, Sandra A., Tiffany Sheffield, Jennifer M. Nelson, Caron C. Clark, Nicolas Chevalier & Kimberly A. Espy
    (2011) The structure of executive function in 3-year olds. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology108: 436–452. 10.1016/j.jecp.2010.08.008
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jecp.2010.08.008 [Google Scholar]
  79. Whitehurst, Graver J. & Christopher J. Lonigan
    (1998) Child development and emergent literacy. Child Development69: 848–872. 10.1111/j.1467‑8624.1998.tb06247.x
    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-8624.1998.tb06247.x [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journals/10.1075/wll.00016.sch
Loading
/content/journals/10.1075/wll.00016.sch
Loading

Data & Media loading...

Most Cited This Month

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was successful
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error