Volume 23, Issue 2
  • ISSN 1387-6732
  • E-ISSN: 1570-6001
Buy:$35.00 + Taxes



Practices of word segmentation in French and Moroccan Arabic by beginning and advanced bilingual writers in two historically and linguistically divergent settings are analysed in a threefold perspective: (1) In the different sociocultural contexts of linguistically heterogeneous France in the 1870’s and a town with remarkable immigration from Morocco in Germany in 2000, dictations constitute monolingual settings of language policy and normativity; (2) structurally, open and closed spellings of (clitic) function and content words indicate constraints of different orthographies, focussing either phonology or morphosyntax; (3) in the framework of contact linguistics, bilingual students write in one of their languages (French, Moroccan Arabic) with resources of other languages (like Breton, German, Classical Arabic).

The results show that the students’ writings are influenced by graphematic structures not directly related to the language dictated. In French Brittany, a great importance of closed spellings may be supported by the agglutinative feature of the Breton language, while the apostrophe as a striking feature of French orthography is used primarily, but often only emblematically, by the students in Gascony. Moroccan Arabic writers in Germany are influenced indirectly by their first school language, German, in the way they mark word boundaries in prepositional phrases (PP) and imperfective verb forms. Classical Arabic, however, remains of marginal influence although both varieties are historically and structurally closely related.


Article metrics loading...

Loading full text...

Full text loading...


  1. AN F17 9254, 9261.1, 9261.2
    AN F17 9254, 9261.1, 9261.2. Rapports de l'inspection générale de l'instruction primaire. Départements Ariége (9254) and Finistère (9261.1, 9261.2). Archives Nationales de France, Paris.
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Bassetti, Benedetta
    (2005) Effects of writing systems on second language awareness: Word awareness in English learners of Chinese as a Foreign Language. In Vivian J. Cook & Benedetta Bassetti (eds.), Second Language Writing Systems, 335–356. Clevedon: Multilingual Matters. 10.21832/9781853597954‑015
    https://doi.org/10.21832/9781853597954-015 [Google Scholar]
  3. Béchade, Hervé D.
    (1992) Phonétique et morphologie du français moderne et contemporaine. Paris: Presses Universitaires de France.
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Böhm, Manuela
    (2018) The tyranny of orthography: Multilingualism and Frenchification at primary schools in late 19th-century France. In Constanze Weth & Kaspar Juffermans (eds.), The Tyranny of writing: Ideologies of the written word, 63–79. London: Bloomsbury.
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Broudic, Fañch
    (1995) La pratique du Breton, de l’Ancien Régime à nos jours. Rennes: Presses Universitaires.
    [Google Scholar]
  6. Bunčić, Daniel
    (2004) The apostrophe: A neglected and misunderstood reading aid. Written Language and Literacy7(2): 185–204.
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Catach, Nina
    (1986) L’orthographe française: Traité théorique et pratique. Paris: Nathan.
    [Google Scholar]
  8. (1996) The French writing system. In Hartmut Günther & Otto Ludwig (eds.), Schrift und Schriftlichkeit: Ein interdisziplinäres Handbuch internationaler Forschung, 2ndvol., 1445–1450. Berlin: De Gruyter.
    [Google Scholar]
  9. Caubet, Dominique
    (1993) L’arabe Marocain. Tome1: Phonologie et morphosyntaxe. Leuven: Peeters.
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Chanet, Jean-François
    (1996) L’Ecole républicaine et les petites patries. Paris: Aubier.
    [Google Scholar]
  11. Chevrot, Jean-Pierre , Céline Dugua & Michel Fayol
    (2005) Liaison et formation des mots en français: Un scénario développemental, Languages158, 38–52. 10.3917/lang.158.0038
    https://doi.org/10.3917/lang.158.0038 [Google Scholar]
  12. Cogis, Danièle
    (2005) Pour einseigner et apprendre l’orthographe. Paris: Delagrave.
    [Google Scholar]
  13. Cornillet, Gérard
    (2008) Grammatik der bretonischen Gegenwartssprache. Eine Einführung. Lannion: Skol Ober. www.skolober.com/Grammatik.pdf Accessed27 August 2018.
    [Google Scholar]
  14. Correa, Jane & Julie E. Dockrell
    (2007) Unconventional word segmentation in Brazilian children’s early text production. Reading and Writing: An Interdisciplinary Journal20: 815–831. 10.1007/s11145‑006‑9049‑3
    https://doi.org/10.1007/s11145-006-9049-3 [Google Scholar]
  15. de Jong, Daan
    (1994) La sociophonologie de la liaison orléanaise. In Chantal Lyche (ed.), French Generative Phonology: Retrospective and Perspectives, 95–130. Salford: Association for French Language Studies.
    [Google Scholar]
  16. Encrevé, Pierre
    (1988) La liaison avec et sans enchaînement. Phonologie tridimensionelle et usages du français. Paris: du Seuil.
    [Google Scholar]
  17. Ferguson, Charles A.
    (1959) Diglossia. Word15: 325–340. 10.1080/00437956.1959.11659702
    https://doi.org/10.1080/00437956.1959.11659702 [Google Scholar]
  18. Fuhrhop, Nanna
    (2008) Das graphematische Wort (im Deutschen): Eine erste Annäherung. Zeitschrift für Sprachwissenschaft27(2): 189–228. 10.1515/ZFSW.2008.010
    https://doi.org/10.1515/ZFSW.2008.010 [Google Scholar]
  19. (2011) The interaction between morphology and syntax exhibited by the German writing system. In Andreas Nolda & Oliver Teuber (eds.), Syntax and Morphology Multidimensional, 259–287. Berlin: De Gruyter. 10.1515/9783110238754.259
    https://doi.org/10.1515/9783110238754.259 [Google Scholar]
  20. Grieshaber, Wilhelm
    (2002) Türkisch auf deutscher Grundlage? Schreibprozesse eines Jungen in der schwächeren Sprache Türkisch. In C. Peschel (ed.), Grammatik und Grammatikvermittlung, 163–178. Frankfurt am Main: Lang.
    [Google Scholar]
  21. Halpern, Aaron L.
    (1998) Clitics. In Andrew Spencer & Arnold M. Zwicky (eds.), The handbook of morphology, 101–122. Oxford: Blackwell.
    [Google Scholar]
  22. Lagrée, Michel
    (1992) Réligion et Cultures en Bretagne, 1850–1950. Paris: Fayard.
    [Google Scholar]
  23. Maas, Utz
    (2018) Marokkanisches Arabisch. Zur Struktur einer Sprache im Werden. Unpublished manuscript. Universität Osnabrück.
    [Google Scholar]
  24. (1992) Grundzüge der deutschen Orthographie. (Reihe Germanistische Linguistik, 120). Tübingen: Niemeyer. 10.1515/9783111376974
    https://doi.org/10.1515/9783111376974 [Google Scholar]
  25. Maas, Utz & Ulrich Mehlem
    (2003) Schriftkulturelle Ressourcen und Barrieren bei marokkanischen Kindern in Deutschland. Osnabrück: IMIS (Institut für Migrationsforschung und Interkulturelle Studien).
    [Google Scholar]
  26. (2002) Schriftkulturelle Probleme der Migration: Kinder marokkanischer Einwanderer in Deutschland. In Jochen Oltmer (ed.), Migrationsforschung und interkulturelle Studien (IMIS-Schriften, 11), 333–366. Osnabrück: Universitätsverlag.
    [Google Scholar]
  27. Mehlem, Ulrich
    (2012) Andersschreiben in Spontanverschriftungen marokkanischer Kinder und Jugendlicher in Deutschland und Marokko. In Britt-Marie Schuster & Doris Tophinke (eds.), Andersschreiben. Formen, Funktionen, Traditionen, 399–420. Berlin: Erich Schmidt.
    [Google Scholar]
  28. (2011) Schriftspracherwerb unter den Bedingungen von Mehrsprachigkeit: Freie Schreibungen von Erstklässlern in Deutsch und Türkisch. In Sabine Hornberg & Renate Valtin (eds.), Mehrsprachigkeit: Chance oder Hürde beim Schriftspracherwerb? – empirische Befunde und Beispiele guter Praxis, 112–135. Berlin: Deutsche Gesellschaft für Lesen und Schreiben.
    [Google Scholar]
  29. (2007) The graphematic marking of prepositional phrases of Tarifit Berber in written narratives of Moroccan students in Germany and Morocco, Written Language and Literacy10(2): 195–218. 10.1075/wll.10.2.03meh
    https://doi.org/10.1075/wll.10.2.03meh [Google Scholar]
  30. Morin, Jean Yves
    (1986) On the morphologization of word-final consonant deletion in French. In Henning Andersen (ed.), Sandhi Phenomena in the Languages of Europe, 167–210. Berlin: De Gruyter. 10.1515/9783110858532.167
    https://doi.org/10.1515/9783110858532.167 [Google Scholar]
  31. Myers-Scotton, Carol
    (1993) Duelling languages: Grammatical structure in codeswitching. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  32. Press, Ian
    (1986) A grammar of modern Breton. Berlin: De Gruyter. 10.1515/9783110884975
    https://doi.org/10.1515/9783110884975 [Google Scholar]
  33. Röber-Siekmeyer, Christa
    (2003) Die Entwicklung orthographischer Fähigkeiten im mehrsprachigen Kontext. In Ursula Bredel , Hartmut Günther , Peter Klotz , Jakob Ossner & Gesa Siebert-Ott (eds.), Didaktik der deutschen Sprache. Vol.1, 392–404. Paderborn: Schöningh UTB.
    [Google Scholar]
  34. Sandbank, Ana
    (2001) On the interplay of genre and writing conventions in early text writing. In Liliana Tolchinsky (ed.), Development aspects in learning to write, 55–75. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publisher. 10.1007/978‑94‑010‑0734‑4_4
    https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-010-0734-4_4 [Google Scholar]
  35. Sebba, Mark
    (2015) Iconisation, attribution and branding in orthography, Written Language and Literacy18(2): 208–227. 10.1075/wll.18.2.02seb
    https://doi.org/10.1075/wll.18.2.02seb [Google Scholar]
  36. (2007) Spelling and Society: The culture and politics of orthography around the world. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 10.1017/CBO9780511486739
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511486739 [Google Scholar]
  37. Soum-Favaro, Christiane , Cecilia Gunnarsson , Aurélie Simoës-Perlant & Pierre Largy
    (2014) La liaison à l’interface entre l’oral et l’écrit. In Christiane Soum-Favaro , Cecilia Gunnarsson , Aurélie Simoës-Perlant & Pierre Largy (eds.), La liaison: Approches contemporaines, 141–167. Bern: Peter Lang. 10.3726/978‑3‑0352‑0204‑5
    https://doi.org/10.3726/978-3-0352-0204-5 [Google Scholar]
  38. Tolchinsky, Liliana & Concha Cintas
    (2001) The development of graphic words in written Spanish. In Liliana Tolchinsky (ed.), Development Aspects in Learning to Write, 77–95. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publisher. 10.1007/978‑94‑010‑0734‑4_5
    https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-010-0734-4_5 [Google Scholar]
  39. Tolchinsky, Liliana , Gabriel Liberman & M. Dolores Alonso-Cortés Fradejas
    (2015) Explaining First Graders’ Achievements in Spelling and Word Separation in Shallow Orthographies, Journal of Writing Research, 6(3): 299–316.
    [Google Scholar]
  40. Tseng, Jesse L.
    (2003) Edge features and French liaison. In Jong-Bok Kim & Stephen Wechsler (eds.), Proceedings of the 9th International Conference on head-driven phrase structure grammar, 313–333. Stanford, CA: CSLI Publications.
    [Google Scholar]
  41. Wmffre, Iwan
    (2007) Breton orthographies and dialects. The twentieth century orthography war in Brittany. 2vols.Bern: Peter Lang.
    [Google Scholar]

Data & Media loading...

  • Article Type: Research Article
Keyword(s): Arabic; Breton; clitics; dictations; French; German; orthography; primary students; spelling; word segmentation

Most Cited

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was successful
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error