Volume 23, Issue 2
  • ISSN 1387-6732
  • E-ISSN: 1570-6001
Buy:$35.00 + Taxes



For several years now, the current debates on multilingualism and multi­literacy have revolved around the concept of translanguaging. In our paper we aim to contribute to the debate by presenting two theoretical approaches that have fueled the debate in the German-speaking academic context over the last thirty years and bringing them to the attention of an international readership. In discussing the analysis of written data of multilingual speakers from an acquisition perspective, we wish to demonstrate the fascinating aspects these works can contribute.


Article metrics loading...

Loading full text...

Full text loading...


  1. Androutsopoulos, Jannis & Stæhr, Andreas
    (2018) Moving methods online: Researching digital language practices. In Angela Creese & Adrian Blackledge (eds.), The Routledge Handbook of language and superdiversity, 118–132. Abingdon (New York): Routledge. 10.4324/9781315696010‑10
    https://doi.org/10.4324/9781315696010-10 [Google Scholar]
  2. Ascenzi-Moreno, Laura & Espinoza, Cecilia M.
    (2018) Opening up spaces for their whole selves: A case study group’s exploration of translanguaging practices in writing. NYS TESOL Journal5(1): 10–29.
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Baker, Colin
    (2011) Foundations of bilingual education and bilingualism. (5th edn.) Bristol: Multilingual Matters.
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Blackledge, Adrian & Angela Creese
    (2010) Multilingualism: A critical perspective. London: Continuum Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  5. [BOE 2018] Diari Oficial de la Generalitat de Catalunya 2018, nº 757
    [BOE 2018] Diari Oficial de la Generalitat de Catalunya 2018, nº 757. Retrieved fromhttps://portaldogc.gencat.cat/utilsEADOP/PDF/7575/1663923.pdf
  6. Bühler, Karl
    (2011) Theory of language: The representational function of language. (Translated by D. F. Goodwin .) Amsterdam: John Benjamins. [First published in 1934 asSprachtheorie: Die Darstellungsfunktion der Sprache. Jena: Gustav Fischer.] 10.1075/z.164
    https://doi.org/10.1075/z.164 [Google Scholar]
  7. Canagarajah, Suresh
    (2005) Dilemmas in planning English/vernacular relations in post-colonial communities. Journal of Sociolinguistics9(3): 418–447. 10.1111/j.1360‑6441.2005.00299.x
    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1360-6441.2005.00299.x [Google Scholar]
  8. (2011) Codemeshing in academic writing: Identifying teachable strategies of translanguaging. The Modern Language Journal95(3): 401–417. 10.1111/j.1540‑4781.2011.01207.x
    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1540-4781.2011.01207.x [Google Scholar]
  9. Cenoz, Jasone & Durk Gorter
    (2014) Focus on multilingualism as an approach in educational contexts. In Adrian Blackledge & Angela Creese (eds.), Heteroglossia as practice and pedagogy (Educational Linguistics, 20), 239–254. Dordrecht: Springer. 10.1007/978‑94‑007‑7856‑6_13
    https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-007-7856-6_13 [Google Scholar]
  10. Coronel-Molina, Serafín M. & Beth L. Samuelson
    (2017) Language contact and translingual literacies. Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development38(5): 379–389. 10.1080/01434632.2016.1186681
    https://doi.org/10.1080/01434632.2016.1186681 [Google Scholar]
  11. Coulmas, Florian
    (2013) Writing and society. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 10.1017/CBO9781139061063
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9781139061063 [Google Scholar]
  12. Creese, Angela & Adrian Blackledge
    (2010) Translanguaging in the bilingual classroom: A pedagogy for learning and teaching?The Modern Language Journal94(1): 103–115. 10.1111/j.1540‑4781.2009.00986.x
    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1540-4781.2009.00986.x [Google Scholar]
  13. Dürscheid, Christa
    (2003) Medienkommunikation im Kontinuum von Mündlichkeit und Schriftlichkeit: Theoretische und empirische Probleme. Zeitschrift für angewandte Linguistik38: 37–56.
    [Google Scholar]
  14. Erfurt, Jürgen
    (2017) Von der Mehrsprachigkeit zur Mehrschriftigkeit: Elemente einer Theorie des sprachlichen Ausbaus. Bulletin VALS-ASLA, numéro spécial 2017, t.1: 11–38.
    [Google Scholar]
  15. Ferguson, Charles A.
    (1971) Language structure and language use. Stanford: Stanford University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  16. Fishman, Joshua A.
    (1968) Readings in the sociology of language. Berlin: de Gruyter. 10.1515/9783110805376
    https://doi.org/10.1515/9783110805376 [Google Scholar]
  17. (1972) Sociology of language: An interdisciplinary social science approach to language in society. Rowley (MA): Newbury House.
    [Google Scholar]
  18. Flower, Linda & John R. Hayes
    (1981) A cognitive process theory of writing. College Composition and Communication32(4): 365–387. 10.2307/356600
    https://doi.org/10.2307/356600 [Google Scholar]
  19. García, Ofelia
    (2009) Bilingual education in the 21st century: A global perspective. Malden, Oxford: Wiley, Blackwell.
    [Google Scholar]
  20. García, Ofelia , Susana Ibarra-Johnson & Kate Seltzer
    (2016) The translanguaging classroom. Philadelphia: Caslon.
    [Google Scholar]
  21. García, Ofelia & Tatyana Kleyn
    (eds.) (2017) Translanguaging with multilingual students. New York, London: Routledge.
    [Google Scholar]
  22. García, Ofelia & Li Wei
    (2014) Translanguaging: Language, bilingualism and education. London: Palgrave Macmillan. 10.1057/9781137385765
    https://doi.org/10.1057/9781137385765 [Google Scholar]
  23. García, Ofelia & Claire E. Sylvan
    (2011) Pedagogies and practices in multilingual classrooms: Singularities in pluralities. The Modern Language Journal95(3): 385–400. 10.1111/j.1540‑4781.2011.01208.x
    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1540-4781.2011.01208.x [Google Scholar]
  24. Gibbons, Pauline
    (2009) English learners, academic literacy, and thinking: Learning in the challenge zone. Portsmouth (NH): Heinemann.
    [Google Scholar]
  25. (2015) Scaffolding language, scaffolding learning: Teaching English language learners in the mainstream classroom. (2nd edn.) Portsmouth (NH): Heinemann.
    [Google Scholar]
  26. Gort, Mileidis
    (2015) Transforming literacy learning and teaching through translanguaging and other typical practices associated with “doing being bilingual”. International Multilingual Research Journal9(1): 1–6. 10.1080/19313152.2014.988030
    https://doi.org/10.1080/19313152.2014.988030 [Google Scholar]
  27. Gumperz, John J.
    (1975) Sprache, lokale Kultur und soziale Identität. Düsseldorf: Schwann.
    [Google Scholar]
  28. Hornberger, Nancy H. & Holly Link
    (2012) Translanguaging and transnational literacies in multilingual classrooms: A biliteracy lens. International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism15(3): 261–278. 10.1080/13670050.2012.658016
    https://doi.org/10.1080/13670050.2012.658016 [Google Scholar]
  29. Klein, Wolfgang & Clive Perdue
    (1997) The Basic Variety (or: Couldn’t natural languages be much simpler?). Second Language Research13(4): 301–347. 10.1191/026765897666879396
    https://doi.org/10.1191/026765897666879396 [Google Scholar]
  30. Kloss, Heinz
    (1952) Die Entwicklung neuerer germanischer Kultursprachen seit 1800. München: Pohl.
    [Google Scholar]
  31. Koch, Peter & Wulf Oesterreicher
    (1985) Sprache der Nähe – Sprache der Distanz: Mündlichkeit und Schriftlichkeit im Spannungsfeld von Sprachtheorie und Sprachgeschichte. Romanistisches Jahrbuch36: 15–43.
    [Google Scholar]
  32. (1990) Gesprochene Sprache in der Romania: Französisch, Italienisch, Spanisch. Tübingen: Narr. 10.1515/9783111372914
    https://doi.org/10.1515/9783111372914 [Google Scholar]
  33. (2012) Language of Immediacy – Language of Distance: Orality and literacy from the perspective of language theory and linguistic history. In Claudia Lange , Beatrix Weber & Göran Wolf (eds.), Communicative spaces: Variation, contact, and change: Papers in honour of Ursula Schaefer, 441–473. Frankfurt: Peter Lang. [English translation of Koch & Oesterreicher 1985.]
    [Google Scholar]
  34. Labov, William
    (1966) The social stratification of English in New York City. Washington: Center for Applied Linguistics.
    [Google Scholar]
  35. Lee, Carmen & David Barton
    (2012) Multilingual texts on Web 2.0: The case of flickr.com. In Mark Sebba , Shahrzad Mahootian & Carla Jonsson (eds.), Language mixing and code-switching in writing, 128–145. New York: Routledge.
    [Google Scholar]
  36. Lexander, Kristin Vold
    (2012) Analyzing multilingual texting in Senegal: An approach for the study of mixed-language SMS. In Mark Sebba , Shahrzad Mahootian & Carla Jonsson (eds.), Language mixing and code-switching in writing, 146–169. New York: Routledge.
    [Google Scholar]
  37. Maas, Utz
    (2008) Sprache und Sprachen in der Migrationsgesellschaft. Göttingen: V & R unipress.
    [Google Scholar]
  38. (2009) Sprache in Migrationsverhältnissen: Sprachausbau (Schriftsprache) vs. mehrsprachige Kommunikation. In Ingrid Gogolin & Ursula Neumann (eds.), Streitfall Zweisprachigkeit – The bilingualism controversy, 145–161. Wiesbaden: VS Verlag für Sozialwissenschaften. 10.1007/978‑3‑531‑91596‑8_9
    https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-531-91596-8_9 [Google Scholar]
  39. (2010) Literat und orat: Grundbegriffe der Analyse geschriebener und gesprochener Sprache. Grazer Linguistische Studien73: 21–150.
    [Google Scholar]
  40. Maas, Utz & Ulrich Mehlem
    (2003) Schriftkulturelle Ressourcen und Barrieren bei marokkanischen Kindern in Deutschland. Osnabrück: IMIS Universität Osnabrück. (https://www.imis-cms.uni-osnabrueck.de/forschung/3_migrationsgesellschaften/abgeschlossene_projekte_3/schriftkulturelle_ressourcen_und_barrieren_bei_marokkanischen_kindern_in_deutschland.html)
    [Google Scholar]
  41. Mahootian, Shahrzad
    (2012) Repertoires and resources: Accounting for code-mixing in the media. In Mark Sebba , Shahrzad Mahootian & Carla Jonsson (eds.), Language mixing and code-switching in writing, 192–211. New York: Routledge.
    [Google Scholar]
  42. Mehlem, Ulrich
    (2010) Eine heilige Sprache? Literalität im Arabischen in Aus- und Einwandererkontexten. IMIS-Beiträge37: 17–54.
    [Google Scholar]
  43. Mehlem, Ulrich & Yazgül Şimşek
    (2015) Bilingual resources and school context: Case studies from Germany and Turkey. In Hagen Peukert (ed.), Transfer effects in multilingual language development, 249–274. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. 10.1075/hsld.4.11meh
    https://doi.org/10.1075/hsld.4.11meh [Google Scholar]
  44. Meyer, Oliver & Do Coyle
    (2017) Pluriliteracies teaching for learning: Conceptualizing progression for deeper learning in literacies development. European Journal of Applied Linguistics5(2): 199–222. 10.1515/eujal‑2017‑0006
    https://doi.org/10.1515/eujal-2017-0006 [Google Scholar]
  45. Morrow, Lesley Mandel
    (2020) Literacy development in the early years: Helping children read and write. (9th edn.) Hoboken (NJ): Pearson Education.
    [Google Scholar]
  46. Münch, Christian
    (2006) Sprachpolitik und gesellschaftliche Alphabetisierung: Zur Entwicklung der Schreibkompetenz in Katalonien seit 1975. Frankfurt: Peter Lang.
    [Google Scholar]
  47. Noack, Christina
    (2018) [How do newly immigrated children proceed in writing?] Unpublished data.
    [Google Scholar]
  48. Noack, Christina & Constanze Weth
    (2012) Orthographie- und Schriftspracherwerb in mehreren Sprachen: Ein Forschungsüberblick. In Wilhelm Grießhaber & Zeynep Kalkavan (eds.), Orthographie- und Schriftspracherwerb bei mehrsprachigen Kindern, 15–34. Freiburg: Filibach.
    [Google Scholar]
  49. Olson, David R. & Nancy Torrance
    (eds.) (2001) The making of literate societies. Malden (MA): Blackwell.
    [Google Scholar]
  50. Otheguy, Ricardo , Ofelia García & Wallis Reid
    (2015) Clarifying translanguaging and deconstructing named languages: A perspective from linguistics. Applied Linguistics Review6(3): 281–307. 10.1515/applirev‑2015‑0014
    https://doi.org/10.1515/applirev-2015-0014 [Google Scholar]
  51. Rymarczyk, Jutta
    (2008a) Früher oder später? Zur Einführung des Schriftbildes in der Grundschule. In Heiner Böttger (ed.), Fortschritte im frühen Fremdsprachenlernen, 170–182. München: Domino.
    [Google Scholar]
  52. (2008b) Mythos: “Paralleler Schrifterwerb ist unmöglich!”. Take Off4: 48.
    [Google Scholar]
  53. Schroeder, Christoph & Yazgül Şimşek
    (2010) Die Entwicklung der Kategorie Wort im türkisch-deutsch bilingualen Schrifterwerb in Deutschland. In Constanze Weth (ed.), Schrifterwerb unter den Bedingungen von Mehrsprachigkeit und Fremdsprachenunterricht. IMIS-Beiträge37: 55–79. https://www.imis.uni-osnabrueck.de/fileadmin/4_Publikationen/PDFs/imis37.pdf
    [Google Scholar]
  54. Sebba, Mark
    (2007) Spelling and society: The culture and politics of orthography around the world. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 10.1017/CBO9780511486739
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511486739 [Google Scholar]
  55. (2012) Orthography as social action: Scripts, spelling, identity and power. In Aexandra Jaffe , Jannis Androutsopoulos , Mark Sebba & Sally Johnson (eds.), Orthography as social action: Scripts, spelling, identity and power, 1–20. Boston, Berlin: de Gruyter Mouton. 10.1515/9781614511038.1
    https://doi.org/10.1515/9781614511038.1 [Google Scholar]
  56. Silva, Tony & Paul Kei Matsuda
    (2001) On second language writing. London: Lawrence Erlbaum.
    [Google Scholar]
  57. Spitzmüller, Jürgen
    (2012) Floating ideologies: Metamorphosis of graphic “Germanness”. In Aexandra Jaffe , Jannis Androutsopoulos , Mark Sebba & Sally Johnson (eds.), Orthography as social action: Scripts, spelling, identity and power, 255–288. Boston, Berlin: de Gruyter Mouton. 10.1515/9781614511038.255
    https://doi.org/10.1515/9781614511038.255 [Google Scholar]
  58. Thaler, Verena
    (2007) Mündlichkeit, Schriftlichkeit, Synchronizität: Eine Analyse alter und neuer Konzepte zur Klassifizierung neuer Kommunikationsformen. Zeitschrift für germanistische Linguistik35(1/2): 147–182.
    [Google Scholar]
  59. Velasco, Patricia & Ofelia García
    (2014) Translanguaging and the writing of bilingual learners. Bilingual Research Journal37(1): 6–23. 10.1080/15235882.2014.893270
    https://doi.org/10.1080/15235882.2014.893270 [Google Scholar]
  60. Weinreich, Uriel
    (1953) Languages in contact: Findings and problems. New York: Linguistic Circle of New York.
    [Google Scholar]
  61. Weth, Constanze
    (2008) Mehrsprachige Schriftpraktiken in Frankreich: Eine ethnographische und linguistische Untersuchung zum Umgang mehrsprachiger Grundschüler mit Schrift. Stuttgart: ibidem-Verlag.
    [Google Scholar]

Data & Media loading...

  • Article Type: Research Article
Keyword(s): literacy; multilingualism; oracy; translanguaging
This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was successful
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error