Volume 24, Issue 2
  • ISSN 1387-6732
  • E-ISSN: 1570-6001
Buy:$35.00 + Taxes



Past research approached the origins of the Coptic alphabet sociolinguistically and empirically. Neither can fully explain the comparatively sudden and fundamental change from a supraphonemic to a phonemic writing system for Egyptian around the second century AD. This paper adds the cognitive-linguistic concept of the grain size of a writing system to the picture. In essence, by the second century, sound changes in Egyptian had resulted in a phonological structure of the language that mapped more easily onto a phonemic writing system than previous stages of the language. This coincided with socio-political developments favouring the Greek alphabet. As a result, multiple writing systems, which shared the underlying structure, alphabetic, and model, the Greek alphabet, emerged. Eventually, one of these prevailed, the Coptic alphabet.


Article metrics loading...

Loading full text...

Full text loading...


  1. Adams, James
    (2003) Bilingualism and the Latin Language. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 10.1017/CBO9780511482960
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511482960 [Google Scholar]
  2. Allen, James
    (2013) The Ancient Egyptian Language: An Historical Study. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 10.1017/CBO9781139506090
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9781139506090 [Google Scholar]
  3. Asfaha, Yonas, Kurvers, Jeanne & Kroon, Sjaak
    (2009) Grain Size in Script and Teaching: Literacy Acquisition in Ge’ez and Latin. Applied Psycholinguistics30: 709–734. 10.1017/S0142716409990087
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S0142716409990087 [Google Scholar]
  4. Bagnall, Roger
    (1993) Egypt in Late Antiquity. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  5. (2005) Linguistic Change and Religious Change: Thinking about the Temples of the Fayoum in the Roman Period. InGawdat Gabra (ed), Christianity and Monasticism in the Fayoum Oasis: Essays from the 2004 International Symposium of the Saint Mark Foundation and the Saint Shenouda the Archimandrite Coptic Society in Honor of Martin Krause, 11–19. Cairo: American University in Cairo Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  6. Baroni, Antonio
    (2011) Alphabetic vs. non-alphabetic writing: Linguistic fit and natural tendencies. Rivista di Linguistica23(2): 127–159.
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Biber, Douglas & Conrad, Susan
    (2009) Register, Genre, and Style. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 10.1017/CBO9780511814358
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511814358 [Google Scholar]
  8. Brehmer, Bernhard
    (2015) The Cyrillic Script as a Boundary Marker between “Insiders” and “Outsiders”: Metalinguistic Discourse about Script Choices in Slavic-German Bilingual Computer-Mediated Communication. InPeter Rosenberg, Konstanze Jungbluth & Dagna Zinkhahn Rhobodes (eds), Linguistic construction of ethnic borders, 55–80. Frankfurt: Peter Lang.
    [Google Scholar]
  9. Bubenik, Vit
    (1993) Dialect contact and koineization: The case of Hellenistic Greek. Journal of the Sociology of Language99(1): 9–23. 10.1515/ijsl.1993.99.9
    https://doi.org/10.1515/ijsl.1993.99.9 [Google Scholar]
  10. Bucking, Scott
    (2012) Towards an archaeology of bilingualism. InAlex Mullen & Patrick James (eds), Multilingualism in the Graeco-Roman Worlds, 225–264. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 10.1017/CBO9781139012775.011
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9781139012775.011 [Google Scholar]
  11. Chappell, Hilary
    (1980) The Romanization Debate. The Australian Journal of Chinese Affairs4: 105–18. 10.2307/2158952
    https://doi.org/10.2307/2158952 [Google Scholar]
  12. Choat, Malcolm
    (2006) Belief and Cult in Fourth-Century Papyri. Turnhout: Brepols. 10.1484/M.SAA‑EB.5.106238
    https://doi.org/10.1484/M.SAA-EB.5.106238 [Google Scholar]
  13. (2009) Language and Culture in Late Antique Egypt. InPhilip Rousseau & Jutta Raithel (eds), A Companion to Late Antiquity, 342–356. Chicester: John Wiley & Sons. 10.1002/9781444306101.ch23
    https://doi.org/10.1002/9781444306101.ch23 [Google Scholar]
  14. (2012) Coptic. InChristina Riggs (ed), The Oxford handbook of Roman Egypt, 581–593. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  15. Clackson, Sarah
    (2010) Coptic or Greek? Bilingualism in the papyri. InArietta Papaconstantinou (ed), The multilingual experience in Egypt: From the Ptolemies to the ’Abbasids, 73–104. Farnham: Ashgate.
    [Google Scholar]
  16. Clarysse, Willy
    (1993) Egyptian Scribes writing Greek. Chronique d’Egypte68(135–136): 186–201. 10.1484/J.CDE.2.308932
    https://doi.org/10.1484/J.CDE.2.308932 [Google Scholar]
  17. (2013) Determinatives in Greek loan-words and proper names. InSven Vleeming (ed), Aspect of Demotic orthography; Acts of an International colloquium held in Trier, 8 November 2010, 1–24. Leuven: Peeters.
    [Google Scholar]
  18. Colvin, Stephen
    (2009) The Greek Koine and the Logic of a Standard Language. InAlexandra Georgakopoulou & Michael Silk (eds), Standard languages and language standards: Greek, past and present, 33–45. Farnham: Ashgate.
    [Google Scholar]
  19. Crellin, Robert
    (2018) Measuring ambiguity and the invention of vowel-writing in Greek. Paper presented atInternational Colloquium on Ancient Greek Linguistics 9 (Helsinki, 30th August – 1st September 2018).
    [Google Scholar]
  20. Crespo, Emilio
    (2007) The linguistic policy of the Ptolemaic kingdom. InMiltiades Chatzopoulos & Vassia Psilakakou (eds), Phōnēs charaktēr ethnikos: actes du Ve Congrès international de dialectologie grecque (Athènes 28–30 septembre 2006), 35–49. Athens: Kentron Hellēnikēs kai Rōmaïkēs Archaiotētos, Ethnikon Hidryma Ereunōn.
    [Google Scholar]
  21. Cribiore, Raffaella
    (1996) Writing, Teachers, and Students in Graeco-Roman Egypt. Atlanta: Scholars Press. 10.3998/mpub.9749698
    https://doi.org/10.3998/mpub.9749698 [Google Scholar]
  22. (1999) Greek and Coptic Education in Late Antique Egypt. InStephen Emmel (ed), Ägypten und Nubien in spätantiker und christlicher Zeit: Akten des 6. Internationalen Koptologenkongresses, Münster, 20.-26. Juli 1996, 279–286. Wiesbaden: Reichert.
    [Google Scholar]
  23. (2001) Gymnastics of the Mind: Greek Education in Hellenistic and Roman Egypt. Princeton: Princeton University Press. 10.1515/9781400844418
    https://doi.org/10.1515/9781400844418 [Google Scholar]
  24. Dahlgren, Sonja
    (2017) Outcome of long-term language contact: transfer of Egyptian phonological features onto Greek in Graeco-Roman Egypt. Helsinki: University of Helsinki.
    [Google Scholar]
  25. (2016) Towards a definition of an Egyptian Greek variety. Papers in Historical Phonology1: 90–108. 10.2218/pihph.1.2016.1695
    https://doi.org/10.2218/pihph.1.2016.1695 [Google Scholar]
  26. Daniels, Peter
    (2018) An Exploration of Writing. Sheffield: Equinox Publishing.
    [Google Scholar]
  27. Depauw, Mark
    (1997) A Companion to Demotic Studies. Bruxelles: Fondation égyptologique reine Élisabeth.
    [Google Scholar]
  28. (2009) Bilingual Greek-Demotic Documentary Papyri and Hellenization in Ptolemaic Egypt. InPeter Van Nuffelen (ed), Faces of Hellenism. Studies in the History of the Eastern Mediterranean (4th century B.C.-5th century A.D.), 120–139. Leuven: Peeters.
    [Google Scholar]
  29. (2012) Language use, literacy and bilingualism. InChristina Riggs (ed), The Oxford Handbook of Roman Egypt, 493–506. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  30. Depauw, Mark & Clarysse, Willy
    (2013) How Christian was Fourth Century Egypt? Onomastic Perspectives on Conversion. Vigiliae Christianae67(4): 407–435. 10.1163/15700720‑12341144
    https://doi.org/10.1163/15700720-12341144 [Google Scholar]
  31. Depauw, Mark & Coussement, Sandra
    (2014) Identifiers and Identification Methods in the Ancient World: Legal Documents in Ancient Societies III. Leuven: Peeters.
    [Google Scholar]
  32. Dieleman, Jacco
    (2005) Priests, Tongues, and Rites: The London-Leiden Magical Manuscripts and Translation in Egyptian Ritual (100–300 CE). Leiden: Brill. 10.1163/9789047406747
    https://doi.org/10.1163/9789047406747 [Google Scholar]
  33. Dillon, Matthew
    (1997) A Homeric pun from Abu Simbel (Meiggs & Lewis 7A). Zeitschrift für Papyrologie und Epigraphik118: 128–130.
    [Google Scholar]
  34. Esling, John
    (2013) Phonetic notation. InWilliam Hardcastle, John Laver & Fiona Gibbon (eds), The Handbook of phonetic sciences (second edition), 678–702. Chicester: Wiley-Blackwell.
    [Google Scholar]
  35. Förster, Hans
    (2002) Wörterbuch der griechischen Wörter in den koptischen dokumentarischen Texten. Berlin: Mouton De Gruyter. 10.1515/9783110893823
    https://doi.org/10.1515/9783110893823 [Google Scholar]
  36. Foss, Clive
    (2003) The Persians in the Roman near East (602–630 AD). Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society13(2): 149–170.
    [Google Scholar]
  37. Fournet, Jean-Luc
    (2019) The Rise of Coptic: Egyptian versus Greek in Late Antiquity (Rostovtzeff Lectures). Princeton: Princeton University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  38. Gardiner, Alan
    (1957) Egyptian Grammar: Being an Introduction to the Study of Hieroglyphs (third edition, revised). Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  39. Gardner, Iain
    (1999) An Old Coptic Ostracon from Ismant el-Kharab?Zeitschrift für Papyrologie und Epigraphik125: 195–200.
    [Google Scholar]
  40. (2006) A letter from the teacher: Some comments on letter-writing and the Manichaean community of IVth century Egypt. InLouis Painchaud & Paul-Hubert Poirier (eds), Coptica – Gnostica – Manichaica: Mélanges offert à Wolf-Peter Funk, 317–323. Québec: Les Presses de l’Université Laval.
    [Google Scholar]
  41. (2007) P. Kellis i 67 Revisited. Zeitschrift für Papyrologie und Epigraphik159: 223–228.
    [Google Scholar]
  42. Gardner, Iain, Alcock, Anthony, Funk, Wolf-Peter, Hope, Colin & Bowen, Gillian
    (1999) Coptic Documentary Texts from Kellis. Oxford: Oxbow.
    [Google Scholar]
  43. Garel, Esther & Nowak, Maria
    (2017) Monastic Wills: The Continuation of Late Roman Legal Tradition?InMalcolm Choat & Maria Giorda (eds), Writing and Communication in Early Egyptian Monasticism, 108–28. Leiden: Brill. 10.1163/9789004336506_006
    https://doi.org/10.1163/9789004336506_006 [Google Scholar]
  44. Hamers, Josiane & Blanc, Michel
    (2000) Bilinguality and Bilingualism (second edition). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 10.1017/CBO9780511605796
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511605796 [Google Scholar]
  45. Hengeveld, Kees
    (2008) Functional Discourse Grammar: A Typologically-Based Theory of Language Structure. Oxford: Oxford University Press. 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199278107.001.0001
    https://doi.org/10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199278107.001.0001 [Google Scholar]
  46. Heselwood, Barry
    (2013) Phonetic Transcription in Theory and Practice. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press. 10.3366/edinburgh/9780748640737.001.0001
    https://doi.org/10.3366/edinburgh/9780748640737.001.0001 [Google Scholar]
  47. Hickey, Raymond
    (2013) Supraregionalisation and Dissociation. InJack Chambers & Natalie Schilling (eds), The Handbook of Language Variation and Change, 537–554. Oxford: Wiley Blackwell. 10.1002/9781118335598.ch25
    https://doi.org/10.1002/9781118335598.ch25 [Google Scholar]
  48. Hirshorn, Elizabeth & Fiez, Julie
    (2014) Using artificial orthographies for studying cross-linguistic differences in the cognitive and neural profiles of reading. Journal of Neurolinguistics31: 69–85. 10.1016/j.jneuroling.2014.06.006
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jneuroling.2014.06.006 [Google Scholar]
  49. Hoffmann, Charlotte
    (1991) An Introduction to Bilingualism. London: Longman.
    [Google Scholar]
  50. Hoffmann, Friedhelm, Minas-Nerpel, Martina & Pfeiffer, Stefan
    (2009) Die dreisprachige Stele des C. Cornelius Gallus: Übersetzung und Kommentar. Berlin: Mouton De Gruyter. 10.1515/9783110216899
    https://doi.org/10.1515/9783110216899 [Google Scholar]
  51. Hornkohl, Aaron & Khan, Geoffrey
    (eds) (2020) Studies in Semitic Vocalisation and Reading Traditions (Cambridge Semitic Languages and Cultures). Cambridge: Open Book Publishers. 10.11647/obp.0207
    https://doi.org/10.11647/obp.0207 [Google Scholar]
  52. Horrocks, Geoffrey
    (2014) Greek: A History of the Language and Its Speakers (second edition). Chichester: Wiley Blackwell.
    [Google Scholar]
  53. Houston, Stephen, Baines, John & Cooper, Jerrold
    (2003) Last Writing: Script Obsolescence in Egypt, Mesopotamia, and Mesoamerica. Comparative Studies in Society and History45(3): 430–479. 10.1017/S0010417503000227
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S0010417503000227 [Google Scholar]
  54. Jeffery, Lilian
    (1990) The Local Scripts of Archaic Greece: A Study of the Origin of the Greek Alphabet and Its Development from the Eighth to the Fifth Centuries B.C. (revised edition). Oxford: Clarendon Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  55. Johnson, Janet
    (2000) Thus Wrote ’Onchsheshonqy – An Introductory Grammar of Demotic. Chicago: The Oriental Institute of the University of Chicago.
    [Google Scholar]
  56. Jördens, Andrea
    (2012) Status and Citizenship. InChristina Riggs (ed), The Oxford Handbook of Roman Egypt, 247–259. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  57. Keenan, James
    (2007) Byzantine Egyptian villages. InRoger Bagnall (ed), Egypt in the Byzantine world, 300–700, 226–243. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  58. Kiss, Zsolt
    (2007) Alexandria in the fourth to seventh centuries. InRoger Bagnall (ed), Egypt in the Byzantine world, 300–700, 187–206. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  59. Kraus, Thomas
    (2000) (Il)literacy in non-literary papyri from Graeco-Roman Egypt: Further aspects of the educational ideal in ancient literary sources and modern times. Mnemosyne53(3): 322–342. 10.1163/156852500510633
    https://doi.org/10.1163/156852500510633 [Google Scholar]
  60. Kurzon, Dennis
    (2010) Romanisation of Bengali and Other Indian Scripts. Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society20(1): 61–74.
    [Google Scholar]
  61. Lallier, Marie & Carreiras, Manuel
    (2018) Cross-linguistic transfer in bilinguals reading in two alphabetic orthographies: The grain size accommodation hypothesis. Psychon Bulletin Review25: 386–401. 10.3758/s13423‑017‑1273‑0
    https://doi.org/10.3758/s13423-017-1273-0 [Google Scholar]
  62. Lawler, Steph
    (2008) Identity: Sociological Perspectives. Cambridge: Polity.
    [Google Scholar]
  63. Layton, Bentley
    (2011) A Coptic Grammar: With Chrestomathy and Glossary: Sahidic Dialect (third edition, revised). Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz.
    [Google Scholar]
  64. Loprieno, Antonio
    (1995) Ancient Egyptian: A Linguistic Introduction. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 10.1017/CBO9780511611865
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511611865 [Google Scholar]
  65. Mackenzie, Lachlan
    (2014) Morphosyntax in functional discourse grammar. InAndrew Carnie, Yosuke Sato & Daniel Siddiqi (eds), The Routledge handbook of syntax, 627–646. Abingdon: Routledge.
    [Google Scholar]
  66. Maehler, Herwig
    (1983) Die griechische Schule im ptolemäischen Ägypten. InEdmond van’t Dack, Peter van Dessel & Wilfried van Gucht (eds), Egypt and the Hellenistic world: Proceedings of the international colloquium Leuven – 24–26 May 1982, 191–203. Leuven: Peeters.
    [Google Scholar]
  67. Matras, Yaron
    (2009) Language Contact. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 10.1017/CBO9780511809873
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511809873 [Google Scholar]
  68. (2015) Why is the borrowing of inflectional morphology dispreferred?InFrancesco Gardani, Peter Arkadiev & Nino Amiridze (eds), Borrowed Morphology, 47–80. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter. 10.1515/9781614513209.47
    https://doi.org/10.1515/9781614513209.47 [Google Scholar]
  69. Miller, D. Gary
    (1994) Ancient Scripts and Phonological Knowledge. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. 10.1075/cilt.116
    https://doi.org/10.1075/cilt.116 [Google Scholar]
  70. Milroy, James & Milroy, Lesley
    (2012) Authority in Language: Investigating Standard English (fourth edition). London: Routledge. 10.4324/9780203124666
    https://doi.org/10.4324/9780203124666 [Google Scholar]
  71. Müller, Matthias
    . forthcoming. Einführung in die Grammatik des Bohairischen. Basel.
    [Google Scholar]
  72. Myers-Scotton, Carol
    (2006) Multiple Voices: An Introduction to Bilingualism. Malden, MA: Blackwell.
    [Google Scholar]
  73. Nolan, Francis
    (1990) Who do phoneticians represent?. Journal of Phonetics18: 453–464. 10.1016/S0095‑4470(19)30373‑0
    https://doi.org/10.1016/S0095-4470(19)30373-0 [Google Scholar]
  74. Ockinga, Boyo
    (2012) A Concise Grammar of Middle Egyptian: An Outline of Middle Egyptian Grammar (third edition). Darmstadt: Philipp Von Zabern.
    [Google Scholar]
  75. Oréal, Elsa
    (1999) Contact linguistique. Le cas du rapport entre le grec at le copte. Lalies19: 289–306.
    [Google Scholar]
  76. Palme, Bernhard
    (2007) The imperial presence: government and army. InRoger Bagnall (ed), Egypt in the Byzantine world, 300–700, 244–270. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  77. (2009) The Range of Documentary Texts: Types and Categories. InRoger Bagnall (ed), The Oxford Handbook of Papyrology, 358–394. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  78. Papadopoulos, John
    (2016) The early history of the Greek alphabet: new evidence from Eretria and Methone. Antiquity90(353): 1238–1254. 10.15184/aqy.2016.160
    https://doi.org/10.15184/aqy.2016.160 [Google Scholar]
  79. Perfetti, Charles & Dunlap, Susan
    (2008) Learning to read: General principles and writing system variations. InKeiko Koda & Annette Zehler (eds), Learning to Read Across Languages: Cross-Linguistic Relationships in First- and Second-Language Literacy Development, 13–38. New York: Routledge.
    [Google Scholar]
  80. Perfetti, Charles & Verhoeven, Ludo
    (2017a) Epilogue: Universals and Particulars in Learning to Read across Seventeen Orthographies. InCharles Perfetti & Ludo Verhoeven (eds), Learning to Read across Languages and Writing Systems, 437–454. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 10.1017/9781316155752.019
    https://doi.org/10.1017/9781316155752.019 [Google Scholar]
  81. (2017b) Introduction: Operating Principles in Learning to Read. InCharles Perfetti & Ludo Verhoeven (eds), Learning to Read across Languages and Writing Systems, 1–30. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  82. Pestman, Pieter & van Groningen, Bernhard
    (1994) The New Papyrological Primer (second edition, revised). Leiden: Brill.
    [Google Scholar]
  83. Peust, Carsten
    (1999) Egyptian Phonology: An Introduction to the Phonology of a Dead Language. Göttingen: Peust & Gutschmidt.
    [Google Scholar]
  84. Pillalamarri, Akhilesh
    (2019) The Story of India’s Many Scripts. The Diplomat, AccessedApril 13, 2020, https://thediplomat.com/2019/07/the-story-of-indias-many-scripts/.
    [Google Scholar]
  85. Quack, Joachim
    (2007) Gebrochene Plurale im Ägyptischen?InRainer Voigt (ed), “From beyond the mediterranean”: Akten des 7. Internationalen Semitohamitistenkongresses (VII. ISHaK), Berlin 13. bis 15. September 2004, 533–572. Aachen: Shaker.
    [Google Scholar]
  86. (2017a) How the Coptic script came about. InEitan Grossman, Peter Dils, Tonio Richter & Wolfgang Schenkel (eds), Greek influence on Egyptian-Coptic: Contact-induced change in an ancient African language, 27–96. Hamburg: Widmaier.
    [Google Scholar]
  87. (2017b) On the Regionalization of Roman-Period Egyptian Hands. InJennifer Cromwell & Eitan Grossman (eds), Scribal Repertoires in Egypt from the New Kingdom to the Early Islamic Period, 184–211. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  88. Richter, Tonio
    (2009) Greek, Coptic and the “language of the Hijra”: the rise and decline of the Coptic language in late antique and medieval Egypt. InHannah Cotton (ed), From Hellenism to Islam: Cultural and Linguistic Change in the Roman Near East, 401–446. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 10.1017/CBO9780511641992.019
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511641992.019 [Google Scholar]
  89. Sachau, Eduard
    (1911) Aramäische Papyrus und Ostraka aus einer jüdischen Militär-Kolonie zu Elephantine: altorientalische Sprachdenkmäler des 5. Jahrhunderts vor Chr. Leipzig: JCHinrichs.
    [Google Scholar]
  90. Sänger, Patrick
    (2011) The Administration of Sasanian Egypt: New Masters and Byzantine Continuity. Greek, Roman, and Byzantine Studies51(4): 653–65.
    [Google Scholar]
  91. Shisha-Halevy, Ariel
    (2002) An Emerging New Dialect of Coptic. Orientalia71(3): 298–308.
    [Google Scholar]
  92. Stadler, Martin
    (2008) On the Demise of Egyptian Writing. Working on a Problematic Source Basis. InJohn Baines, John Bennett & Stephen Houston (eds), The Disappearance of Writing Systems: Perspectives on literacy and communication, 157–181. London: Equinox.
    [Google Scholar]
  93. Sternberg-El Hotabi, Heike
    (1994) Der Untergang der Hieroglyphenschrift: Schriftverfall und Schrifttod im Ägypten der griechisch-römischen Zeit. Chronique d’Egypte69(138): 218–248. 10.1484/J.CDE.2.308962
    https://doi.org/10.1484/J.CDE.2.308962 [Google Scholar]
  94. (1999) Untersuchungen zur Überlieferungsgeschichte der Horusstelen: ein Beitrag zur Religionsgeschichte Ägyptens im 1. Jahrtausend v. Chr. (Ägyptologische Abhandlungen, 62.) Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz.
    [Google Scholar]
  95. Thomason, Sarah
    (2001) Language Contact. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  96. Thompson, Dorothy
    (2009) The multilingual environment of Persian and Ptolemaic Egypt: Egyptian, Aramaic, and Greek documentation. InRoger Bagnall (ed), The Oxford Handbook of Papyrology, 395–417. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  97. Till, Walter
    (1928) Achmîmisch-koptische Grammatik mit Chrestomathie und Wörterbuch. Leipzig: JCHinrichs.
    [Google Scholar]
  98. Tolipov, Farkhod
    (2017) Revere or Reverse? Central Asia between Cyrillic and Latin Alphabets, AccessedApril 2, 2020, https://www.cacianalyst.org/publications/analytical-articles/item/13447-revere-or-reverse?-central-asia-between-cyrillic-and-latin-alphabets.html.
  99. Torallas Tovar, Sofia
    (2004a) Egyptian lexical interference in the Greek of Byzantine and early Islamic Egypt. InPetra Sijpesteijn & Lennart Sundelin (eds), Papyrology and the history of early Islamic Egypt, 163–198. Leiden: Brill.
    [Google Scholar]
  100. (2004b) The context of loanwords in Egyptian Greek. InPedro Bádenas de la Pena, Sofia Torallas Tovar, Eugenio Luján & María Ángeles Gallego (eds), Lenguas en contacto: El testimonio escrito, 57–67. Madrid: Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas.
    [Google Scholar]
  101. (2007) Egyptian loanwords in Septuaginta and the papyri. InBernhard Palme (ed), Akten des 23. Internationalen Papyrologenkongresses, Wien, 22.-28. Juli 2001, 687–692. Vienna: Verlag der Österreichischen Akademie der Wissenschaften.
    [Google Scholar]
  102. (2010a) Greek in Egypt. InEgbert Bakker (ed), A Companion to the Ancient Greek Language, 253–66. Oxford: John Wiley & Sons. 10.1002/9781444317398.ch17
    https://doi.org/10.1002/9781444317398.ch17 [Google Scholar]
  103. (2010b) Linguistic Identity in Graeco-Roman Egypt. InArietta Papaconstantinou (ed), The Multilingual Experience in Egypt, from the Ptolemies to the ’Abbasids, 17–43. Farnham: Ashgate.
    [Google Scholar]
  104. (2017) The Reverse Case: Egyptian Borrowing in Greek. InEitan Grossman, Peter Dils, Tonio Richter & Wolfgang Schenkel (eds), Greek Influence on Egyptian Coptic: Contact induced change in an ancient African language, 97–113. Hamburg: Widmaier.
    [Google Scholar]
  105. Torallas Tovar, Sofia & Vierros, Marja
    (2019) Languages, Scripts, Literature, and Bridges Between Cultures. InKatelijn Vandorpe (ed), A Companion to Greco-Roman and Late Antique Egypt, 483–499. Hoboken: Wiley Blackwell. 10.1002/9781118428429.ch31
    https://doi.org/10.1002/9781118428429.ch31 [Google Scholar]
  106. Unwin, Lorna, Hughes, Jason & Jewson, Nick
    (2007) Communities of Practice: Critical Perspectives. London: Routledge.
    [Google Scholar]
  107. van Minnen, Peter
    (2007) The other cities in Later Roman Egypt. InRoger Bagnall (ed), Egypt in the Byzantine world, 300–700, 207–225. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  108. von Lieven, Alexandra
    (2009) Script and Pseudo Scripts in Graeco-Roman Egypt. InNon-textual marking systems, writing and pseudo script from prehistory to modern times, 101–111. Göttingen: Widmaier.
    [Google Scholar]
  109. von Lieven, Alexandra & Lippert, Sandra
    (2016) Egyptian (3000 BCE to ca. 400 CE). InDaniel Bunčić, Sandra Lippert, Achim Rabus & Anastasia Antipova (eds), Biscriptality: a sociolinguistic typology, 256–276. Heidelberg: Universitätsverlag Winter.
    [Google Scholar]
  110. Wachter, Rudolf
    (2001) Non-Attic Greek Vase Inscriptions. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  111. Werning, Daniel
    (2016) Hypotheses on glides and matres lectionis in earlier Egyptian orthographies. InJames Allen, Mark Collier & Andreas Stauder (eds), Coping with obscurity: The Brown workshop on earlier Egyptian grammar, 29–44. Atlanta: Lockwood Press. 10.2307/j.ctvvncz5.6
    https://doi.org/10.2307/j.ctvvncz5.6 [Google Scholar]
  112. Wipszycka, Ewa
    (2007) The institutional church. InRoger Bagnall (ed), Egypt in the Byzantine world, 300–700, 331–349. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  113. Wright, Roger
    (2013) Periodization. InMartin Maiden, John Smith & Adam Ledgeway (eds), The Cambridge History of the Romance Languages, 107–124. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 10.1017/CHO9781139019996.004
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CHO9781139019996.004 [Google Scholar]
  114. Zakrzewska, Ewa
    (2015) L⋆ as a Secret Language: Social Functions of Early Coptic. InGawdat Gabra & Hany Takla (eds), Christianity and Monasticism in Middle Egypt, 185–198. Cairo: The American University in Cairo Press. 10.5743/cairo/9789774166631.003.0018
    https://doi.org/10.5743/cairo/9789774166631.003.0018 [Google Scholar]
  115. Ziegler, Johannes & Goswami, Usha
    (2005) Reading Acquisition, Developmental Dyslexia, and Skilled Reading Across Languages: A Psycholinguistic Grain Size Theory. Psychological Bulletin131(1): 3–29. 10.1037/0033‑2909.131.1.3
    https://doi.org/10.1037/0033-2909.131.1.3 [Google Scholar]

Data & Media loading...

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was successful
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error