Volume 29 Number 2
  • ISSN 0155-0640
  • E-ISSN: 1833-7139


This article examines the current usage of terms of address in the Western Ukrainian variety of the Ukrainian language. It investigates the use of pronominal ( – intimate form; [ – polite, distant form) and nominal forms of address (such as first name, father’s name, surname, title, (Mr/Mrs), (Comrade) etc.) in Western Ukrainian, as well as strategies to avoid direct address, through quantitative (questionnaires) and qualitative (oral discussion) data. The data were analysed using both descriptive and interpretive methods. A set of factors that determine address choice in Ukrainian was isolated and a model was developed which reflects the hierarchical relationships and mutual influences between these factors. The factors were divided into key factors (age, style of upbringing, personal value system, gender, and political convictions) and factors of interaction (relative age, relative status, setting, social distance, and kinship). Combining different address habits and the weight of pragmatic factors in the choice of address forms, the analysis demonstrates that two tendencies currently exist. Some people are traditionalists who adhere to fairly conservative patterns of address, whereas others are brought up more liberally and tend to have a more relaxed attitude towards the choice of address terms.

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  • Article Type: Research Article
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