Volume 31, Issue 2
  • ISSN 0155-0640
  • E-ISSN: 1833-7139


Affective variables can help understand differences in student performance. This paper presents student expectations as an affective variable that has so far received little research attention. Students have expectations from educational providers, the fulfilment of which can create a positive learning environment leading to better performance. This study investigates students’ expectations from programs, the sources of these expectations and the outcomes of unmet expectations. A questionnaire was administered to learners of English as an additional language (n=65) in Brisbane, Australia. Factor analyses were conducted, and the results indicated that expectations are affected by levels of competitiveness, the educational and cultural gap between the home country and Australia, future orientation, and social value in the homeland. Unmet expectations affect performance, emotions, learning behaviour and cause rebelliousness. Followup interviews of teachers (n=10) at the same institutions were conducted to validate the results of the study. Students are likely to exhibit poorer performance and experience negative affective outcomes, thus hindering learning, if expectations are unmet. They may consider changing institutions and providing negative recommendations to prospective students. This research extends the understanding of affective variables in second language acquisition and has practical implications for educational providers.


Article metrics loading...

Loading full text...

Full text loading...


  1. Batstone, R.
    (2002) Contexts of engagement: A discourse perspective on ‘intake’ and ‘pushed output’. System, (30), 1&14. doi: 10.1016/S0346‑251X(01)00055‑0
    https://doi.org/10.1016/S0346-251X(01)00055-0 [Google Scholar]
  2. Bolitho, R. ; Carter, R. ; Hughes, R. ; Ivanic, R ; Masuhara, H. ; Tomlinson, B.
    (2003) Ten questions about language awareness. ELT Journal, 57(3), 251&259. doi: 10.1093/elt/57.3.251
    https://doi.org/10.1093/elt/57.3.251 [Google Scholar]
  3. Bordia, S. ; Wales, M. L. ; Pittam, J.
    (2006) Role of student expectations in TESOL. TESOL in Context, 16, 10&17.
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Bordia, S. ; Wales, M. L. ; Pittam, J. ; Gallois, C.
    (2006) Student expectations of TESOL programs: Student and teacher perspectives. Australian Review of Applied Linguistics, 29, 4.1–4.21. doi: 10.2104/aral0604
    https://doi.org/10.2104/aral0604 [Google Scholar]
  5. Calvert, P.
    (2001) International variations in measuring customer expectations. Library Trends, 49, 732&757.
    [Google Scholar]
  6. Clément, R. ; Dörnyei, Z. ; Noels, K.
    (1994) Motivation, self-confidence, and group cohesion in the foreign language classroom. Language Learning, 44, 417&448. doi: 10.1111/j.1467‑1770.1994.tb01113.x
    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-1770.1994.tb01113.x [Google Scholar]
  7. Cook, C. ; Heath, F.
    (2001) Users’ perceptions of library service quality: A LibQual+ qualitative study. Library Trends, 49, 548&583.
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Elkhafaifi, H.
    (2005) Listening comprehension and anxiety in the Arabic language classroom. Modern Language Journal, 89, 206&220. doi: 10.1111/j.1540‑4781.2005.00275.x
    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1540-4781.2005.00275.x [Google Scholar]
  9. Field, A.
    (2005) Discovering statistics using SPSS. London: Sage.
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Fitzpatrick, T. ; Wray, A.
    (2006) Breaking up is not so hard to do: Individual differences in L2 memorization. Canadian Modern Language Review, 63, 35&58. doi: 10.3138/cmlr.63.1.35
    https://doi.org/10.3138/cmlr.63.1.35 [Google Scholar]
  11. Freeman, D. ; Freeman, Y.
    (2000) Meeting the needs of English language learners. Talking Points, 12, 2&7.
    [Google Scholar]
  12. Gardner, R. C. ; Lambert, W.
    (1959) Motivation variables in second language acquisition. Canadian Journal of Psychology, 13, 266&272. doi: 10.1037/h0083787
    https://doi.org/10.1037/h0083787 [Google Scholar]
  13. Gardner, R. C. ; Masgoret, A. M ; Tennant, J. ; Mihic, L.
    (2004) Integrative motivation: Changes during a year-long intermediate-level language course. Language Learning, 54, 1&34. doi: 10.1111/j.1467‑9922.2004.00247.x
    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9922.2004.00247.x [Google Scholar]
  14. Gilly, M. ; Cron; W. L. ; Barry, T. E.
    (1983) The expectation-performance comparison process: an investigation of expectation types. In R.L. Day and H.K. Hunt (eds), International fare in consumer satisfaction and complaining behaviour (pp. 10–16). Bloomington, Indiana: School of Business, Indiana University.
    [Google Scholar]
  15. Halstead, D. ; Hartman, D. ; Schmidt, S. L.
    (1994) Multisource effects on the satisfaction formation process. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 22, 114&129. doi: 10.1177/0092070394222002
    https://doi.org/10.1177/0092070394222002 [Google Scholar]
  16. Hampton, G. M.
    (1993) Gap analysis of college student satisfaction as a measure of professional service quality. Journal of Professional Services Marketing, 9, 115&128. doi: 10.1300/J090v09n01_10
    https://doi.org/10.1300/J090v09n01_10 [Google Scholar]
  17. Ho, J. ; Crowley, G.
    (2003) User perceptions of the ‘reliability’ of library services at Texas A&M University: A focus group study. The Journal of Academic Librarianship, 29, 82&87. doi: 10.1016/S0099‑1333(02)00423‑8
    https://doi.org/10.1016/S0099-1333(02)00423-8 [Google Scholar]
  18. Hughes, R.
    (ed.) (2005) Spoken English, Applied Linguistics and TESOL: Challenges for theory and practice. London: Palgrave Macmillan.
    [Google Scholar]
  19. Krashen, S.
    (1981) The ‘fundamental pedagogic principle’ in second language teaching. Studia Linguistica, 35, 50&70. doi: 10.1111/j.1467‑9582.1981.tb00701.x
    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9582.1981.tb00701.x [Google Scholar]
  20. Martin, S.
    (2003) Using SERVQUAL in health libraries across Somerset, Devon and Cornwall. Health Information and Libraries Journal, 20, 15&21. doi: 10.1046/j.1471‑1842.2003.00404.x
    https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1471-1842.2003.00404.x [Google Scholar]
  21. McKinney, V. ; Yoon, K. ; Zahedi, F.
    (2002) The measurement of web-customer satisfaction: An expectation and disconfirmation approach. Information Systems Research, 3, 296&315. doi: 10.1287/isre.
    https://doi.org/10.1287/isre. [Google Scholar]
  22. Nitecki, D.
    (1996) Changing the concept and measure of service quality in academic libraries. The Journal of Academic Librarianship, 22, 181&190. doi: 10.1016/S0099‑1333(96)90056‑7
    https://doi.org/10.1016/S0099-1333(96)90056-7 [Google Scholar]
  23. Nitecki, D. ; Hernon, P.
    (2000) Measuring service quality at Yale University’s libraries. The Journal of Academic Librarianship, 26, 259&273. doi: 10.1016/S0099‑1333(00)00117‑8
    https://doi.org/10.1016/S0099-1333(00)00117-8 [Google Scholar]
  24. Nunan, D.
    (2001) English as a global language. TESOL Quarterly, 35, 605&606. doi: 10.2307/3588436
    https://doi.org/10.2307/3588436 [Google Scholar]
  25. Ozge, U.
    (2001) Patient satisfaction with nursing care at a university hospital in Turkey. Journal of Nursing Care Quality, 16, 24&33. doi: 10.1097/00001786‑200110000‑00004
    https://doi.org/10.1097/00001786-200110000-00004 [Google Scholar]
  26. Parasuraman, A. ; Zeithaml, V. A ; Berry, L. L.
    (1988) SERVQUAL: A multiple item scale for measuring consumer perceptions of service quality. Journal of Retailing, 64, 12&40.
    [Google Scholar]
  27. Pennycook, A.
    (1994) The cultural politics of English as an international language. New York: Longman.
  28. Richards, L. ; Richards, T.
    (1981) NUDIST: A computer assisted technique for thematic analysis of unstructured data. Bundoora, Vic.: Dept. of Sociology, La Trobe University.
    [Google Scholar]
  29. Samimy, K. K.
    (1994) Teaching Japanese: Consideration of learners’ affective variables. Theory to Practice, 33, 29&22.
    [Google Scholar]
  30. Santos, J. ; Boote, J.
    (2003) A theoretical exploration and model of consumer expectations, post-purchase affective states and affective behaviour. Journal of Consumer Behaviour, 3, 142&156. doi: 10.1002/cb.129
    https://doi.org/10.1002/cb.129 [Google Scholar]
  31. Schumann, J.
    (1978) The pidginization process: A model for second language acquisition. Rowley, Massachusetts: Newbury House.
    [Google Scholar]
  32. Suh, K. ; Kim, S. ; Lee, J.
    (1994) End-user’s disconfirmed expectations and the success of information systems. Information Resources Management Journal, 7, 30&39. doi: 10.4018/irmj.1994100103
    https://doi.org/10.4018/irmj.1994100103 [Google Scholar]
  33. Tan, K. ; Kek, S.
    (2004).Service quality in higher education using an enhanced SERVQUAL approach. Quality in Higher Education, 10, 17&24. doi: 10.1080/1353832242000195032
    https://doi.org/10.1080/1353832242000195032 [Google Scholar]
  34. Zeithaml, V. A. ; Berry, L. L ; Parasuraman, A.
    (1993) The nature of determinants of customer expectations of service. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 21, 1&12. doi: 10.1177/0092070393211001
    https://doi.org/10.1177/0092070393211001 [Google Scholar]
  • Article Type: Research Article
This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was successful
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error