1887
Volume 33, Issue 1
  • ISSN 0155-0640
  • E-ISSN: 1833-7139

Abstract

While strategy instruction research generally focuses on the effect of the teaching on learners’ use of the strategies targeted for instruction, the present study examines the ‘wash over’ effect on learners’ use of pre-existing, non-target strategies. The study involved a treatment class and a comparison class in the ESL oral classroom in Hong Kong. A quasi-experimental design was adopted in which the treatment class received metacognitive strategy instruction to enhance students’ ability to manage English group discussion tasks. A data collection method comprising observations and stimulated recall interviews that aimed to tap respectively overt strategy use and covert strategic thoughts was employed. The findings indicate that, for the treatment class, while there seemed to be no ‘wash over’ effect from target to non-target strategies in the frequency of use of the whole sample of non-target strategies over time, there were increases in the frequency of use of individual, non-target strategies that were pertinent to the specific nature of small group discussion tasks. The findings are discussed with respect to the differential and desirable effects of the strategy teaching and to the relationship between task type and strategy choice. Implications for strategy instruction will also be drawn.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.2104/aral1002
2010-01-01
2019-10-15
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

References

  1. Chamot, Anna Uhl
    (2005) Language learning strategy instruction: current issues and research. Annual Review of Applied Linguistics, 25, 112–130. doi: 10.1017/S0267190505000061
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S0267190505000061 [Google Scholar]
  2. Cohen, Andrew D.
    (1998) Strategies in learning and using a second language. London: Longman.
  3. Cohen, Andrew D. ; Weaver, Susan J. ; Li, Tao-Yuan
    (1998) The impact of strategies-based instruction on speaking a foreign language. In Cohen, Andrew D. (ed.). Strategies in learning and using a second language. 107–156. London: Longman.
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Ellis, Rod
    (ed.) (2005) Planning and task performance in a second language. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. doi: 10.1075/lllt.11
    https://doi.org/10.1075/lllt.11 [Google Scholar]
  5. Ericsson, K. Anders ; Simon, Herbert A.
    (1996) Protocol analysis: verbal reports as data (3rd ed.). MA: MIT Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  6. Gass, Susan M. ; Mackey, Alison
    (2000) Stimulated recall methodology in second language research. N.J.: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Inc.
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Green, Alison
    (1998) Verbal protocol analysis in language testing research: a handbook. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Hassan, Xavière ; Macaro, Ernesto ; Mason, Deborah ; Nye, Gail ; Smith, Peter ; Vanderplank, Robert
    (2005) Strategy instruction in language learning: a systematic review of available research. InResearch evidence in education library. London: EPPI-Centre, Social Science Research Unit, Institute of Education, University of London. RetrievedJanuary 14, 2008, fromeppi.ioe.ac.uk/cms/Default.aspx?tabid=297andlanguage=en-US.
    [Google Scholar]
  9. Lam, Wendy, Y. K.
    (2004) Developing English speaking skills in the secondary classroom: A pilot project [CD-ROM]. Hong Kong: The Hong Kong Institute of Education.
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Lam, Wendy. Y. K.
    (2009) Examining the effects of metacognitive strategy instruction on ESL group discussions: a synthesis of approaches. Language Teaching Research, 13(2), 129–150.
    [Google Scholar]
  11. Macaro, Ernesto
    (2006) Strategies for language learning and for language use: revising the theoretical framework. The Modern Language Journal, 90, 320–337. doi: 10.1111/j.1540‑4781.2006.00425.x
    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1540-4781.2006.00425.x [Google Scholar]
  12. Macaro, Ernesto ; Erler, Lynn
    (2008) Raising the achievement of young-beginner readers of French through strategy instruction. Applied Linguistics, 29, 90–119. doi: 10.1093/applin/amm023
    https://doi.org/10.1093/applin/amm023 [Google Scholar]
  13. Nakatani, Yasuo
    (2005) The effects of awareness-raising instruction on oral communication strategy use. The Modern Language Journal, 89, 76–91. doi: 10.1111/j.0026‑7902.2005.00266.x
    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.0026-7902.2005.00266.x [Google Scholar]
  14. Nakatani, Yasuo ; Goh, Christine
    (2007) A review of oral communication strategies: Focus on interactionist and psycholinguistic perspectives (pp.207–227). In Andrew D. Cohen and Ernesto Macaro (eds), Language learner strategies. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  15. O’Malley, J. Michael ; Chamot, Anna Uhl
    (1990) Learning strategies in second language acquisition. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. doi: 10.1017/CBO9781139524490
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9781139524490 [Google Scholar]
  16. Oxford, Rebecca ; Cho, Yunkyoung ; Leung, Santoi ; Kim, Hae-Jin
    (2004) Effect of the presence and difficulty of task on strategy use: an exploratory study. International Review of Applied Linguistics, 42, 1–47. doi: 10.1515/iral.2004.001
    https://doi.org/10.1515/iral.2004.001 [Google Scholar]
  17. Rubin, Joan
    (2005) The expert language learner: a review of good language learner studies and learner strategies. In Keith Johnson . (ed.), Expertise in second language learning and teaching, (pp.37–64). Amsterdam: John Benjamins. doi: 10.1057/9780230523470_3
    https://doi.org/10.1057/9780230523470_3 [Google Scholar]
  18. Rubin, Joan ; Chamot, Anna Uhl ; Harris, Vee ; Anderson, Neil J.
    (2007) Intervening in the use of strategies. In Andrew D. Cohen and Ernesto Macaro . (eds) (2007) Language learner strategies: thirty years of research and practice, (pp.141–160). Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  19. Wenden, Anita
    (1998) Metacognitive knowledge and language learning. Applied Linguistics19, 515–537. doi: 10.1093/applin/19.4.515
    https://doi.org/10.1093/applin/19.4.515 [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journals/10.2104/aral1002
Loading
  • Article Type: Research Article
This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was successful
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error