1887
Volume 153, Issue 1
  • ISSN 0019-0829
  • E-ISSN: 1783-1490
USD
Buy:$35.00 + Taxes

Abstract

This study examines the acquisition of copula choice, more particularly the contrast between ser and estar ('to be') in Spanish by native speakers of Portuguese. Our research differs from previous work because the first language of the participants included also contains a copula contrast. Our previous analysis of data collected in adult L1 Spanish and Portuguese L2 Spanish, and data collected in Portuguese from adult L1 Portuguese, demonstrated important differences between these groups (Geeslin & Guijarro-Fuentes, 2006). The frequency of copula selection can be seen to be a result of L1 transfer, but the predictors of copula choice do not transfer directly from L1 to the L2. We argue that one of the key focuses of investigation should be the distinction between obligatory and variable contexts (Geeslin & Guijarro-Fuentes, 2004). Moreover, one must examine the linguistic features associated with variation between these three groups. In response, the current study analyzes those contexts where copula selection is unanimous for some or all of the participants in contrast with those where all speakers exhibit variation. We aim to determine whether or not those contexts that allow variation are the source of differences between the natives and the non-natives. This study is of general interest not only to those working on L2 Spanish, but also to the growing body of research on the acquisition of variable structures in SLA.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.2143/ITL.153.0.2022820
2007-01-01
2019-10-14
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

References

  1. Adamson, H.D. & Kovac, C.
    (1981) Variation theory and second language acquisition: An analysis of Schumann's data. In D. Sankoff & H. Cedergren (Eds.), Variation omnibus (pp.285–292). Edmonton, Alberta: Linguistic Research.
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Adamson, H.D. & Regan, V.
    (1991) The acquisition of community speech norms by Asian immigrants learning English as a second language. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 13, 1, 1–22.
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Bayley, R. & Langman, J.
    (2004) Variation in the group and the individual: Evidence from second language acquisition. IRAL42, 4, 303–318.
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Beebe, L.
    (1980) Sociolinguistic variation and style shifting in SLA. Language Learning, 30, 2, 433–447.
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Beebe, L. & Zuengler, J.
    (1983) Accommodation theory: An explanation for style shifting in second language dialects. In N. Wolfson & E. Judd (Eds.), Sociolinguistics and language acquisition (pp.195–213). Rowley, MA: Newbury.
    [Google Scholar]
  6. Berkowitz, D.
    (1989) The effects of cultural empathy on second language phonological production. In M. Eisenstein (Ed.), The dynamic interlanguage: Empirical studies in second language variation, (pp.101–114). New York: Plenum Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Birdsong, D.
    (ed.) 1999Second Language Acquisition and the Critical Period Hypothesis. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Bongaerts, T
    (1999) Ultimate attainment in L2 pronunciation: The case of very advanced later learners. In D. Birdsong (Ed.), Second language acquisition and the critical period hypothesis (pp.133–160). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.
    [Google Scholar]
  9. Carlson, G.
    (1989) On the semantic composition of English generic sentences. In G. Chierchia ,
    [Google Scholar]
  10. B. Partee , & R. Turner
    (Eds.) Properties, types and meaning (pp.167–192). Volume2. Dordrecht: Kluwer.
    [Google Scholar]
  11. Clements, J. C.
    (1988) The semantics and pragmatics of the Spanish #x003C;copula + adjective#x003E; construction. Linguistics, 26, 779–822.
    [Google Scholar]
  12. Costa, J.
    (1998) L'opposition seriestar en portugais. In A. Rouveret (Ed.), #x0022;ETRE#x0022; et AVOIR. Syntaxe, sémantique, typologie, (pp.139–153). Vicennes University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  13. Dickerson, L. & Dickerson, W.
    (1977) Interlanguage phonology: Current research and future directions. In P. Corder & E. Roulet (eds.), Acres du 5ème Colloque de Linguistique Appliqué de Neuchátel: The notions of simplification, interlanguages and pidgins and their relation to second language acquisition (pp.18–29). Geneva: Droz.
    [Google Scholar]
  14. Ellis, R.
    (1999) Item versus system learning: Explaining free variation. Applied Linguistics, 20, 4, 460–480.
    [Google Scholar]
  15. Falk, J.
    (1979) Ser y estar con atributos adjetivales. Uppsala: Alqvist and Wiksell.
    [Google Scholar]
  16. Fernández Leborans, M. J.
    (1999) La predicación: las oraciones copulativas. In I. Bosque , & V. Demonte (Eds.), Gramática descriptiva de la lengua espahola (pp.2354–2460). Madrid: Espasa.
    [Google Scholar]
  17. Gatbonton, E.
    (1978) Patterned phonetic variability in second language speech: A gradual diffusion model. Canadian Modern Language Review, 34, 335–347.
    [Google Scholar]
  18. Geeslin, K.
    (2000) A new approach to the second language acquisition of copula choice in Spanish. In R. Leow & C. Sanz (Eds.), Spanish Applied Linguistics at the Turn of the Millennium: Papers from the 1999 Conference on the LI & L2 Acquisition of Spanish and Portuguese, (pp.50–66). Somerville, MA: Cascadilla Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  19. (2001) Changing norms, moving targets and the SLA of copula choice. Spanish Applied Linguistics, 5 (1-2), 29–55.
    [Google Scholar]
  20. (2003) A comparison of copula choice in advanced and native Spanish. Language Learning, 53,4, 703–764.
    [Google Scholar]
  21. (2005) Crossing Disciplinary Boundaries to Improve the Analysis of Second Language Data: A Study of Copula Choice with Adjectives in Spanish. Munich: LINCOM Publishers.
    [Google Scholar]
  22. (2006) Linguistic contextual features and variation in L2 data elicitation. In C. Klee & T. Face (eds.), Selected proceedings from the 7th Conference on the acquisition of Spanish and Portuguese as a first and second language, pp.74–85. Somerville, MA: Cascadilla Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  23. Geeslin, K. & Guijarro-Fuentes, P.
    (2004) Estudio longitudinal del Ser y Estar en el español como L2. Porta Linguarum2,93–110.
    [Google Scholar]
  24. (2005) The acquisition of copula choice in instructed Spanish: The role of individual characteristics. In Eddington, D. (Ed.), Studies in the Acquisition of the Hispanic Languages: Papers from the 6th Conference on the Acquisition of Spanish and Portuguese as First and Second Languages, pp.66–77. Somerville, MA: Cascadilla Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  25. (2006) The Second Language Acquisition of Variable Structures in Spanish by Portuguese Speakers. Language Learning56 (1), 53–107.
    [Google Scholar]
  26. Guijarro-Fuentes, P. & Geeslin, K.
    (2006) Copula choice in the Spanish of Galicia: The effects of bilingualism on language use. Spanish in Context3(1), 63–83.
    [Google Scholar]
  27. Guitart, J.
    (2002) Spanish ser and estar in cognitive/pragmatic perspective. Paper presented atthe Kentucky Foreign Language Conference, Lexington, KY.
    [Google Scholar]
  28. Gutierrez, M.
    (1992) Ser y estar en elhabla de Michoacán, México. México, D.F.: UNAM.
    [Google Scholar]
  29. Howard, M.
    (2004) On the interactional effect of linguistic constraints on interlanguage variation: The case of past time marking. IRAL42,4,319–34.
    [Google Scholar]
  30. Larsen-Freeman, D.
    (1975) The acquisition of gramatical morphemes by adult ESL students. TESOL Quarterly9,409–30.
    [Google Scholar]
  31. Leonetti, M.
    (1994) Sery estar. estado de la cuestión. Barataria, Universidad de Alcalá de Henares, 1, 182–205.
    [Google Scholar]
  32. Luján, M.
    (1981) The Spanish copulas as aspectual indicators. Lingua54,165–210.
    [Google Scholar]
  33. Montrul, S & Slabakova, R.
    (2003) Competence similarities between native and near-native speakers. An investigation of the Preterite-Imperfect Contrast in Spanish. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 25, 351–398.
    [Google Scholar]
  34. Mougeon, R. & Dewaele, J.
    (2004) Preface to variation in the interlanguage of advanced second language learners. IRAL, 42,4,295–301.
    [Google Scholar]
  35. Preston, D.
    (1993) Variationist linguistics and second language acquisition. Second Language Research, 9,2,153–172.
    [Google Scholar]
  36. (1996) Variationist perspectives on second language acquisition. In R. Bayley & D. Preston (eds.), Second Language Acquisition and Linguistic Variation (pp.1–45). Amsterdam: John Benjamins.
    [Google Scholar]
  37. (2000) Three kinds of sociolinguistics and SLA: A psycholinguistic perspective. In B. Swierzbin et al. (Eds.). Social and Cognitive Factors in SLA, (pp.3–30). Somerville, MA: Cascadilla.
    [Google Scholar]
  38. Regan, V.
    (1995) The acquisition of sociolinguistic native speech norms. In Freed, B. (Ed.). Second Language Acquisition in a Study Abroad Context, (pp.245–267). Amsterdam: John Benjamins.
    [Google Scholar]
  39. Rehner, K.
    (2002) The development of aspects of linguistic and discourse competence by advanced second language learners of French. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, OISE/ University of Toronto.
    [Google Scholar]
  40. Rehner, K. , Mougeon, R. & Nadasdi, T.
    (2003) The learning of sociolinguistic variation by advanced FSL learners: The case of nous versus on in immersion French. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 25, 127–156.
    [Google Scholar]
  41. Ryan, J. & Lafford, B.
    (1992) The acquisition of lexical meaning in a study abroad nvironment: Ser+ estar and the Granada experience. Hispania, 75, 714–22.
    [Google Scholar]
  42. Salaberry, R. & López-Ortega, N.
    (1998) Accurate L2 production across language tasks: Focus on form, focus on meaning and communicative control. Modern Language Journal82, 4, 514–532.
    [Google Scholar]
  43. Selinker, L. & Douglass, D.
    (1985) Wrestling with 'context' in interlanguage theory. Applied Linguistics, 6, 190–204.
    [Google Scholar]
  44. Silva-Corvalán, C.
    (1986) Bilingualism and language change: The extension of estar in Los Angeles Spanish. Language, 62, 587–608.
    [Google Scholar]
  45. (1994) Language contact and change: Spanish in Los Angeles. Oxford: Clarendon Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  46. Tarone, E.
    (1983) On the variability of interlanguage systems. Applied Linguistics, 4, 142–63.
    [Google Scholar]
  47. (1985) Variability in interlanguage use: A study of style-shifting in morphology and syntax. Language Learning, 35, 373–404.
    [Google Scholar]
  48. (1988) Variation in Interlanguage. London: Edward Arnold.
    [Google Scholar]
  49. (2000) Still wrestling with context in Interlanguage Theory. Annual Review of Applied Linguistics20,182–198.
    [Google Scholar]
  50. Vañó-Cerdá, A.
    (1982) Ser y Estar + Adjetivos. Tubingen: Narr.
    [Google Scholar]
  51. VanPatten, B.
    (1987) The acquisition of ser and estar: Accounting for developmental patterns. In B. VanPatten , T. Dvorak , & J. Lee (Eds.), Foreign language learning: A research perspective (pp.61–75). New York: Newbury House.
    [Google Scholar]
  52. Weinberger, S.
    (1987) The influence of linguistic context on syllable simplification. In G. loup & S. Weinberger (Eds.), Interlanguage phonology: The acquisition of a second language sound system, (pp.401–417). Cambridge: Newbury House Publishers.
    [Google Scholar]
  53. Wenk, B.
    (1986) Cross-linguistic influence in second language phonology: Speech Rhythms. In Kellerman, E. & M. Sharwood Smith (Eds.), Cross-linguistic influence in second language acquisition, (pp.120–133). New York: Pergamon.
    [Google Scholar]
  54. White, L. & Genesee, F.
    (1996) How native is near-native? The issue of ultimate attainment in adult second language acquisition. Second Language Research, 12, 238–265.
    [Google Scholar]
  55. Young, R.
    (1991) Variation in Interlanguage Morphology. New York: Peter Lang.
  56. Zampini, M.
    (1994) The role of native language transfer and task formality in the acquisition of Spanish spirantization. Hispania77,470–481.
    [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journals/10.2143/ITL.153.0.2022820
Loading
  • Article Type: Research Article
This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was successful
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error