Volume 156, Issue 1
  • ISSN 0019-0829
  • E-ISSN: 1783-1490
Buy:$35.00 + Taxes



This study investigates the effects of using Strategic and Interactive Writing Instruction (SIWI) with deaf, middle school students who use American Sign Language as their L1 and written English as L2. Using a pretest-posttest control group design, the research explores whether students receiving SIWI made significantly greater gains compared to those not receiving SIWI on a number of variables. There were 33 total students, 16 in the treatment group and 17 in the comparison group. The intervention lasted a total of 8 weeks, during which time the treatment group collaboratively constructed two report papers using SIWI components, and the comparison group continued with their typical literacy instruction. The pre and posttest measures were scored, according to rubrics, for evidence of primary traits, contextual language, and conventions. The multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) and follow-up univariate analyses were statistically significant. Furthermore, effect sizes (d) were large to very large, ranging from 1.27 to 2.65, indicating SIWI to be an effective approach with deaf L2 writers.


Article metrics loading...

Loading full text...

Full text loading...


  1. Albertini, J.A. & Schley, S.
    (2003) Writing: Characteristics, instruction and assessment. InM. Marschark & P.E. Spencer (Eds.). Oxford handbook of deaf studies, language, and education (pp.123–135). New York: Oxford University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Applebee, A. N.
    (2000) Alternative models of writing development. InR. Indrisano & J. Squire (Eds.). Perspectives on writing: Research, theory and practice (pp.. 90–110). Newark, Delaware: International Reading Association.
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Atwell, N.
    (1998) In the middle: New understandings about writing, reading, and learning (2nd ed.). Portsmouth, NH: Boynton/Cook Publishers.
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Bereiter, C.
    (1980) Development in writing. InGregg, L.Q. & Steinberg, E.R. (Eds.). Cognitive processes in writing (pp.73–93). New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum.
    [Google Scholar]
  5. De La Piedra, M.T.
    (2006) Literacies and Quechua oral language: Connecting sociocultural worlds and linguistic resources for biliteracy development. Journal of Early Childhood Literacy, 6(3), 383–406.
    [Google Scholar]
  6. Dunbar, S.
    (1992) Integrating language and content: A case study. TESL Canada Journal, 10 (1), 62–70.
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Englert, C. S., Conway, P., Gover, M., & Dunsmore, K.
    (2000) Rubric for scoring informative narrative writing. Unpublished report. East Lansing, MI: Michigan State University.
  8. Englert, C. S., & Dunsmore, K.
    (2002) A Diversity of teaching and learning paths: Teaching writing in situated activity. InJ. Brophy (Ed.), Social constructivist teaching: Affordances and constraints (pp.. 81–130). Boston: JAI.
    [Google Scholar]
  9. Englert, C.S., Raphael, T.E. & Anderson, L.M.
    (1989) Cognitive Strategy Instruction in Writing Project, East Lansing, MI: Institute for Research on Teaching.
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Englert, C.S., Raphael, T.E. & Mariage, T.V.
    (1998) A multi-year literacy intervention: Transformation and personal change in the community of the Early Literacy Project. Teacher Education and Special Education, 21(4), 255–277.
    [Google Scholar]
  11. Enns, C.J.
    (2006) A language and literacy framework for bilingual deaf education. Self-published report. Winnipeg, MB: University of Manitoba.
    [Google Scholar]
  12. Evans, C.
    (1998) Two languages, one goal: Literacy learning in deaf students. CAEDHH Journal/La Revue ACESM, 25 (1–3), 6–19.
    [Google Scholar]
  13. Fung, P., Chow, B. & McBride-Chang, C.
    (2005) The impact of a dialogic reading program on deaf and hard-of-hearing kindergarten and early primary school-aged students in Hong Kong. Journal of Deaf Studies and Deaf Education, 10(1), 82–95.
    [Google Scholar]
  14. Graham, S. & Perin, D.
    (2007) Writing next: Effective strategies to improve writing of adolescents in middle and high schools – A report to Carnegie Corporation of New York. Washington, DC: Alliance for Excellent Education.
    [Google Scholar]
  15. Hammill, D., & Larsen, S.
    (1996) Test of written language (3rd ed.). Austin, TX: PRO-ED.
    [Google Scholar]
  16. Helfgott, D. & Westhaver, M.
    (2007) Inspiration [Computer software]. Retrieved fromwww.inspiration.com/productinfo/inspiration/index.cfm
  17. Hillocks, G.
    (1984) What works in teaching composition: A meta-analysis of experimental treatment studies. American Journal of Education, 93 (1), 133–170.
    [Google Scholar]
  18. Howell, D. C.
    (2002) Statistical methods for psychology (5th ed.). Pacific Grove, CA: Duxbury Thomson Learning, Inc.
    [Google Scholar]
  19. Howerton, A.
    (2006, February) The form and position of adverbs in ASL and English: Implications for teachers of the deaf. Paper presented at themeeting of the Association of College Educators of the Deaf and Hard of Hearing, Denver, CO.
    [Google Scholar]
  20. Huang, J.
    (2004) Socialising ESL students into the discourse of school science through academic writing. Language and Education, 18(2), 97–123.
    [Google Scholar]
  21. Jackendoff, R.
    (1994) Patterns in the mind. New York, NY: BasicBooks.
    [Google Scholar]
  22. Mariage, T. V.
    (2001) Features of an interactive writing discourse: Conversational involvement, conventional knowledge, and internalization in “Morning Message.” Journal of Learning Disabilities, 34 (2), 172–196.
    [Google Scholar]
  23. Mayer, C., Akamatsu, C.T. & Stewart, D.
    (2002) A model for effective practice: Dialogic inquiry with students who are deaf. Exceptional children, 68(4), 485–502.
    [Google Scholar]
  24. McAnally, P. L., Rose, S., & Quigley, S. P.
    (1994) Language learning practices with deaf children (2nd ed.). Austin, TX: Pro-Ed, Inc.
    [Google Scholar]
  25. Michigan Educational Assessment Program
    Michigan Educational Assessment Program (2004) Grade 7 writing. RetrievedAugust 11, 2006, fromwww.michigan.gov/documents/W04_Gr7_Rel_Item_Wrt_Scorept_5_110881_7.pdf
  26. Pessoa, S., Hendry, H., Donato, R., Tucker, R.G. & Lee, H.
    (2007) Content-based instruction in the foreign language classroom: A discourse perspective. Foreign Language Annals, 40(1), 102–121.
    [Google Scholar]
  27. Pinker, S.
    (1995) The language instinct: How the mind creates language. New York: Harper Collins Publishers, Inc.
    [Google Scholar]
  28. Quigley, S. P., Steinkamp, M. W., Power, D. J. & Jones, B. W.
    (1978) Test of syntactic abilities. Beaverton, OR: Dormac, Inc.
    [Google Scholar]
  29. Ransdell, S. Lavelle, B. & Levy, C.M.
    (2002) The effects of training a good working memory strategy on L1 and L2 writing. InS. Ransdell & M. Barbier (Eds.), New directions for research in L2 writing (pp.133–144). Boston: Kluwer Academic Publishers.
    [Google Scholar]
  30. Reyes, M.
    (1991) A process approach to literacy using dialogue journals and literature logs with second language learners. Research in the Teaching of English, 25(3), 291–313.
    [Google Scholar]
  31. Schoenfeld, A.H.
    (2002) A highly interactive discourse structure. Social Constructivist Teaching, 9, 131–169.
    [Google Scholar]
  32. Singleton, J. L., Morgan, D., DiGello, E., Wiles, J., & Rivers, R.
    (2004) Vocabulary use by low, moderate, and high ASL-proficient writers compared to hearing ESL and monolingual speakers. Journal of Deaf Studies and Deaf Education, 9 (1), 86–103.
    [Google Scholar]
  33. Stewart, D.
    (2006) Instructional and practical communication: ASL and English-based signing in the classroom. InD. F. Moores & D. S. Martin (Eds.), Deaf learners: New developments in curriculum and instruction (pp.. 207–220). Washington, D.C.: Gallaudet University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  34. Tocalli-Beller, A. & Swain, M.
    (2005) Reformulation: The cognitive conflict and L2 learning it generates. International Journal of Applied Linguistics, 15 (1), 5–28.
    [Google Scholar]
  35. Valdes, G.
    (2006) Bilingual minorities and language issues in writing: Toward professionwide responses to a new challenge. InP.K. Matsuda, M. Cox, J. Jordan & C. Ortmeier-Hooper (Eds.), Second-language writing in the composition classroom: A critical resource (pp.. 31–70). New York: Bedford/St.Martin’s.
    [Google Scholar]
  36. Warriner, J. E.
    (1988) English composition and grammar (Benchmark ed.). Chicago: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich.
    [Google Scholar]
  37. Wolbers, K.
    (2007) Using balanced and interactive writing instruction to improve the higher order and lower order writing skills of deaf students. Journal of Deaf Studies and Deaf Education.
    [Google Scholar]
  • Article Type: Research Article
This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was successful
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error