1887
Volume 157, Issue 1
  • ISSN 0019-0829
  • E-ISSN: 1783-1490
USD
Buy:$35.00 + Taxes

Abstract

Abstract

This study investigates the effect of extensive form-focused instruction on a complex point of grammar, the passive voice in English. Subjects were 40 Sinophone ESL students in Grade 8 to 11, ranging in age from 13 to 17 (mean = 14.8). After a battery of pre-tests, subjects underwent an instructional phase of 7.5 hours during which they received explicit instruction on the forms and functions of the passive voice, enhanced input, implicit and negative feedback, and did a variety of exercises, from highly structured to guided writing. Post-tests were administered three weeks after the end of the instruction phase. Results showed that treatment had a significant effect on subjects\u2019 learning of the passive voice, and that the subjects were able to transfer their explicit knowledge to a communicative writing task.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.2143/ITL.157.0.2042587
2009-01-01
2019-09-20
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

References

  1. Balcom, P.
    (1997) “Why is this happened?” Passive morphology and unaccusativity. Second Language Research, 13, 1–9.
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Benati, A.
    (2001) A comparative study of the effect of processing instruction and output-based instruction on the acquisition of the Italian future tense. Language Teaching Research, 5, 95–127.
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Bialystok, E.
    (1979) Explicit and implicit judgements of L2 grammaticality. Language Learning, 29, 81–103.
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Biber, D., Johansson, S., Leech, G., Conrad, S., & Finegan, E.
    (1999) Longman grammar of spoken and written English. Harlow, Essex: Pearson Education Limited.
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Cadierno, T.
    (1995) Formal instruction from a processing perspective: An investigation into the Spanish past tense. The Modern Language Journal, 79, 179–193.
    [Google Scholar]
  6. Carroll, S. & Swain, M.
    (1993) Explicit and implicit negative feedback: An empirical study of the learning of linguistic generalizations. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 15, 357–386.
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Celce-Murcia, M. & Larsen-Freeman, D.
    (1983) The grammar book: An ESL/EFL teacher’s course. Boston: Heinle & Heinle.
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Corbeil, G.
    (2005) Effectiveness of focus-on-forms instruction. Canadian Journal of Applied Linguistics8, 27–46.
    [Google Scholar]
  9. Day, E. & Shapson, S.
    (1991) Integrating formal and functional approaches in language teaching in French immersion: An experimental study. Language Learning, 41, 25–58.
    [Google Scholar]
  10. DeKeyser, R. M.
    (1995) Learning second language grammar rules: An experiment with a miniature linguistic system. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 19, 195–221.
    [Google Scholar]
  11. DeKeyser, Robert M.
    (2005) What makes learning second-language grammar difficult? A review of issues. Language Learning, 55,1–25.
    [Google Scholar]
  12. DeKeyser, R. & Sokalski, K. J.
    (1996) The differential role of comprehension and production practice. Language Learning, 46, 613–642.
    [Google Scholar]
  13. Doughty, C. J.
    (1991) Second language instruction does make a difference: Evidence from an empirical study of ESL relativization. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 13, 431–469.
    [Google Scholar]
  14. (2003) Instructed SLA: Constraints, compensation and enhancement. InC. J. Doughty & M. H. Long, (Eds.), The handbook of second language acquisition, (pp. 256–311). Malden MA: Blackwell.
    [Google Scholar]
  15. (2004) Effects of instruction on SL learning: A critique of instructed SLA research. InB. VanPattenet al(Eds.), Form-meaning connections in SLA (pp. 181–202). Mahwah, NJ. Lawrence Erlbaum.
    [Google Scholar]
  16. Ellis, R.
    (1990) Instructed second language acquisition. Oxford: Blackwell.
    [Google Scholar]
  17. (1994) A theory of instructed language acquisition. InN. Ellis(Ed.), Implicit and explicit language learning (pp. 79–114). London: Academic Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  18. (1997) Second language acquisition. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  19. (1998) Teaching and research: Options in grammar teaching. TESOL Quarterly, 32, 39–60.
    [Google Scholar]
  20. (2002) Does form-focused instruction affect the acquisition of implicit knowledge?: A review of the research. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 24, 223–236.
    [Google Scholar]
  21. (2006) Researching the effects of form-focused instruction on SLA. AILA Review, 19, 18–41.
    [Google Scholar]
  22. Ellis, R., Basturkmen, H. & Loewen, S.
    (2001) Learner uptake in communicative ESL lessons. Language Learning51, 281–318.
    [Google Scholar]
  23. Farley, A. P.
    (2004) Processing instruction and the Spanish subjunctive: Is explicit information needed?InB. VanPatten(Ed.), Processing instruction (pp. 227–239). London: Lawrence Erlbaum.
    [Google Scholar]
  24. Fotos, S. & Ellis, R.
    (1991) Communicating about grammar: A task-based approach. TESOL Quarterly, 25, 605–628.
    [Google Scholar]
  25. Frazier, S.
    (2007) Continuing developments in discourse-based grammar instruction. The CATESOL Journal19,1, 30–34.
    [Google Scholar]
  26. Gass, S., Svetics, I & Lemelin, S.
    (2003) Differential effects of attention. Language Learning, 3, 497–545.
    [Google Scholar]
  27. Han, Z.
    1998 Fossilization: An investigation into advanced L2 learning of a typologically distant language. Doctoral dissertation, Birbeck College, University of London.
  28. Harley, B.
    (1989) Functional grammar in French immersion: A classroom experiment. Applied Linguistics, 10, 331–359.
    [Google Scholar]
  29. Hinkel, E.
    (2004) Tense, aspect and the passive voice in L1 and L2 academic texts [Electronic version]. Language Teaching Research, 8, 5–29.
    [Google Scholar]
  30. Hulstijn, J. H.
    (1995) Not all grammar rules are equal: Giving grammar instruction its proper place in foreign language teaching. InR. Schmidt(Ed.), From attention to awareness in foreign language learning, (pp. 359–386). Honolulu: University of Hawai’i Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  31. Hulstijn, J. H. & de Graaff, R.
    (1994) Under what conditions does explicit knowledge of a second language facilitate the acquisition of implicit knowledge? A research proposal. AILA Review, 11, 97–112.
    [Google Scholar]
  32. Hyland, K.
    (2003) Hyland, K. (2003) Second language writing. Cambridge University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  33. Izumi, S. & Bigelow, M.
    (2001) Methodological and theoretical issues in testing the effects of focus on form. TESOL Quarterly, 35, 181–189.
    [Google Scholar]
  34. Izumi, S. & Lakshmanan, U.
    (1998) Learnability, negative evidence, and the L2 acquisition of the English passive. Second Language Research, 14, 62–101.
    [Google Scholar]
  35. Kleinmann, H.
    (1977) Avoidance behavior in second language acquisition. Language Learning, 27, 93–107.
    [Google Scholar]
  36. Kubota, M.
    (1994) The role of negative feedback on the acquisition of the English dative alternation by Japanese college students of EFL. Institute for Research in language teaching Bulletin, 8 (ERIC ED 386023), 1–36.
    [Google Scholar]
  37. Krashen, S.
    (1981) Second language acquisition and second language learning. Oxford: Pergamon Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  38. Lee, S.-K.
    (2007) Effects of textual enhancement and topic familiarity on Korean EFL students’ reading comprehension and learning of passive form. Language Learning, 57, 87–118.
    [Google Scholar]
  39. Leow, R. P.
    (1997) Attention, awareness, and foreign language behaviour. Language Learning, 47, 467–506.
    [Google Scholar]
  40. Long, M. H.
    (1983) Does second language instruction make a difference? A review of the research. TESOL Quarterly, 17, 359–382.
    [Google Scholar]
  41. (1988) Instructed interlanguage development. InL. Beebe(Ed.), Issues in second language acquisition: Multiple perspectives (pp. 115–141). Rowley, MA : Newbury House.
    [Google Scholar]
  42. Long, M., Inagaki, S. & Ortega, L.
    (1998) The role of implicit negative feedback in SLA: Models and recasts in Japanese and Spanish. The Modern Language Journal, 82, 357–371.
    [Google Scholar]
  43. Long, M. H. & Robinson, P.
    (1998) Focus on form: Theory, research, and practice. InC. Doughty & J. Williams(Eds.), Focus on form in classroom second language acquisition (pp. 15–41). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  44. Macaro, E. & Masterman, L.
    (2006) Does intensive explicit grammar instruction make all the difference?Language Teaching Research10, 297–327.
    [Google Scholar]
  45. Marton, F. & Tsui, A.B.M.
    (2004) Classroom discourse and the space of learning. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
    [Google Scholar]
  46. Master , P.
    (1994) The effect of systematic instruction on learning the English article system. InT. Odlin(Ed.), Perspectives on pedagogical grammar (pp. 229–252). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  47. Muranoi, H.
    (2000) Focus on form through interaction enhancement: Integrating formal instruction into a communicative task in EFL classrooms. Language Learning, 50, 617–673.
    [Google Scholar]
  48. Norris, J. & Ortega, L.
    (2000) Effectiveness of L2 instruction: A research synthesis and quantitative meta-analysis. Language Learning, 50, 417–528.
    [Google Scholar]
  49. Oshita, H.
    (2001) The unaccusative trap in second language acquisition. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 23, 279–304.
    [Google Scholar]
  50. Reinders, H.W.
    2005 The effect of different task types on L2 learners’ intake and acquisition of two grammatical structures. Doctoral dissertation, University of Auckland. RetrievedJuly 9, 2007fromhdl.handle.net/2292/25.
  51. Robinson, P.
    (1996) Learning simple and complex second language rules under implicit, incidental, rule-search, and instructed conditions. Studies in Second Language Acquisition18, 27–67.
    [Google Scholar]
  52. Salaberry, M.R.
    (1997) The role of input and output practice in second language acquisition. The Canadian Modern Language Review, 63, 422–451.
    [Google Scholar]
  53. Schachter, J.
    (1974) An error in error analysis. Language Learning, 24, 204–214.
    [Google Scholar]
  54. Scott, V. M.
    (1990) Explicit and implicit grammar teaching: New empirical evidence. The French Review, 63, 779–788.
    [Google Scholar]
  55. Sharwood Smith, M.
    (1991) Speaking to many minds: On the relevance of different types of language information for the L2 learner. Second Language Research, 7, 118–132.
    [Google Scholar]
  56. (1993) Input enhancement in instructed SLA: Theoretical bases. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 15, 165–179.
    [Google Scholar]
  57. Simard, D.
    (2002) La mise en évidence textuelle : d’où venons-nous et où allons-nous?The Canadian Modern Languages Review, 59, 236–263.
    [Google Scholar]
  58. Spada, N.
    (1997) Form-focussed instruction and second language acquisition: A review of classroom and laboratory research. Language Teaching, 30, 73–87.
    [Google Scholar]
  59. SPSS Training Manual for AMA
    SPSS Training Manual for AMA (2007) Retrieved06.07.07fromwww.ama-med.org.ar/dwnl/Chapter%2007.pdf
  60. Svartvik, J.
    (1966): On voice in the English verb. The Hague: Mouton.
    [Google Scholar]
  61. VanPatten, B.
    (2002) Processing instruction: An update. Language Learning, 52, 755–803.
    [Google Scholar]
  62. VanPatten, B. & Cadierno, T.
    (1993) Input processing and second language acquisition: A role for instruction. The Modern Language Journal, 77, 45–57.
    [Google Scholar]
  63. VanPatten, B. & Oikkenon, S.
    (1996) Explanation versus structured input in processing instruction. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 15, 225–243.
    [Google Scholar]
  64. VanPatten, B. & Sanz, C.
    (1995) From input to output: Processing instruction and communicative tasks. InF. Eckman, D. Highland, P. Lee, J. Mileham, & R. Weber(Eds.), SLA theory and pedagogy (pp. 169–185). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
    [Google Scholar]
  65. Ward, D.
    (2002, December 11) Dramatic shift in languages across the Lower Mainland: Native English speakers fall below 50 percent in Richmond, Burnaby. The Vancouver Sun, A1.
    [Google Scholar]
  66. White, L., Spada, N., Lightbown, P. & Ranta, L.
    (1991) Input enhancement and L2 question formation. Applied Linguistics, 12, 416–432.
    [Google Scholar]
  67. Williams, J. & Evans, J.
    (1998) What kind of focus on which forms. InC. Doughty & J. Williams (Eds.), Focus on form in classroom second language acquisition (pp. 139–155). Cambridge : Cambridge University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  68. Yabuki-Soh, Noriko
    (2007) Teaching relative clauses in Japanese: Exploring alternate types of instruction and the projection effect. Studies in Second Language Acquisition29, 219–252.
    [Google Scholar]
  69. Yip, V.
    (1994) Grammatical consciousness-raising and learnability. InT. Odlin(Ed.), Perspectives on pedagogical grammar (pp. 123–139). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  70. 1995Interlanguage and learnability: From Chinese to English. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.
    [Google Scholar]
  71. Zhou, Y.-P.
    (1992) The effect of explicit instruction of the acquisition of English grammatical structures by Chinese learners. InC. James & P. Garrett(Eds.), Language awareness in the classroom (pp. 254–277). London: Longman.
    [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journals/10.2143/ITL.157.0.2042587
Loading
  • Article Type: Research Article
This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was successful
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error